Nishimura W.,Joslin Diabetes Center |
Nishimura W.,Harvard University |
Nishimura W.,National Health Research Institute |
Nishimura W.,Jichi University |
And 12 more authors.
Early in pancreatic development, epithelial cells of pancreatic buds function as primary multipotent progenitor cells (1°MPC) that specify all three pancreatic cell lineages, i.e., endocrine, acinar and duct. Bipotent "Trunk" progenitors derived from 1°MPC are implicated in directly regulating the specification of endocrine progenitors. It is unclear if this specification process is initiated in the 1°MPC where some 1°MPC become competent for later specification of endocrine progenitors. Previously we reported that in Pdx1tTA/+;tetOMafA (bigenic) mice inducing expression of transcription factor MafA in Pdx1-expressing (Pdx1+) cells throughout embryonic development inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 1°MPC cells, resulting in reduced pancreatic mass and endocrine cells by embryonic day (E) 17.5. Induction of the transgene only until E12.5 in Pdx1+ 1°MPC was sufficient for this inhibition of endocrine cells and pancreatic mass at E17.5. However, by birth (P0), as we now report, such bigenic pups had significantly increased pancreatic and endocrine volumes with endocrine clusters containing all pancreatic endocrine cell types. The increase in endocrine cells resulted from a higher proliferation of tubular epithelial cells expressing the progenitor marker Glut2 in E17.5 bigenic embryos and increased number of Neurog3-expressing cells at E19.5. A BrdU-labeling study demonstrated that inhibiting proliferation of 1°MPC by forced MafA-expression did not lead to retention of those progenitors in E17.5 tubular epithelium. Our data suggest that the forced MafA expression in the 1°MPC inhibits their competency to specify endocrine progenitors only until E17.5, and after that compensatory proliferation of tubular epithelium gives rise to a distinct pool of endocrine progenitors. Thus, these bigenic mice provide a novel way to characterize the competency of 1°MPC for their ability to specify endocrine progenitors, a critical limitation in our understanding of endocrine differentiation. © 2015 Nishimura et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source
Roush G.C.,St Vincents Medical Center |
Fagard R.H.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Salles G.F.,University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho |
Pierdomenico S.D.,University of Chieti Pescara |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension
Background: Whether ambulatory blood pressure (BP) among hypertensive patients better predicts cardiovascular events (CVEs) in women relative to men is unclear. Methods: We searched PUBMED and OVID databases. Cohorts were required to have hypertension, 1+ years of follow-up, with stroke and coronary artery disease as outcomes. Lead investigators for these cohorts provided ad hoc analyses. Random-effect meta-analyses gave hazard ratios for CVEs from a 1 standard deviation (SD) mmHg increase and a 10 mmHg increase in SBP. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses quantified the relative increase in risk in women versus men. Results: Patients were from Europe, Brazil, and Japan (10 cohorts, n = 17 312, CVEs = 1892). One cohort lacked sex-specific hazard ratios from 24 h and clinic SBP. Compared with men, women tended to have greater SDs and coefficients of variation of SBP. Subgroup analyses showed higher hazard ratios in women than in men from increases in ambulatory but not clinic SBPs. For women relative to men, a 1 SD increase in night-time, daytime, 24 h, and clinic SBP gave hazard ratios (95% confidence limits) of 1.17 (1.06-1.30), 1.24 (1.10-1.39), 1.21 (1.08-1.36), and 0.94 (0.84-1.05), respectively, whereas a 10 mmHg increase in SBP, gave hazard ratios of 1.06 (0.99-1.14), 1.13 (1.03-1.23), 1.10 (1.01-1.21), and 0.96 (0.89-1.03), respectively. Conclusion: In patients with hypertension, increases in ambulatory, but not clinic, SBP predict higher risks for CVEs in women than in men. Although women tended to have greater variability in SBP, this did not entirely explain the sex-ambulatory BP interactions. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source
Iwasaki S.,Shinshu University |
Yoshimura H.,Shinshu University |
Takeichi N.,Hokkaido University |
Satou H.,Iwate University |
And 14 more authors.
Journal of Otolaryngology of Japan
Usher syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder that causes bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome types 1, 2, and 3 can be distinguished by differences in audiovestibular features. The objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate 26 patients with Usher syndrome clinically. The 26 patients (male: 12 cases, female: 14 cases) with Usher syndrome, with a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and RP, had been registered from 13 hospitals as a multicenter study. We assessed the clinical history and performed audiovestibular and ophthalmologic examinations, and genetic testing. Eleven of the patients were classified as having Usher type 1 (38.5%), 6 with Usher type 2 (23.1%), and 9 with Usher type 3 (38.5%). However, many patients with atypical Usher type 1 (70%) and type 2 (83.3%) were found compared with Usher type 3 (10%). The conductive rate of vestibular examinations including the caloric test (50%) was low. There were many variations in the clinical symptoms in Usher syndrome patients, therefore the classification of Usher types 1, 2, and 3 has been complicated. We have proposed a flowchart for the diagnosis of Usher types 1, 2, and 3. Source
Suzuki K.,Chiba University |
Suzuki K.,Asia International Institute of Infectious Disease Control |
Suzuki K.,University of Tsukuba |
Suzuki K.,Osaka University |
And 9 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Background. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO), a diagnostic criterion in MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis (MPO-AAV), does not always correlate with disease activity. Here, we detected autoantibodies against moesin, which was located on the surface of stimulated endothelial cells, in the serum of patients. Methods. The anti-moesin autoantibody titer was evaluated by ELISA. Seventeen kinds of cytokines/chemokines were measured by a Bio-Plex system. Results. Serum creatinine in the anti-moesin autoantibodypositive group was higher than that in the negative group. Additionally, interferon (IFN)-γ, macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-13, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were significantly higher in the positive group. Furthermore, IL-7 and IL-12p70 levels correlated with the anti-moesin autoantibody titer. Based on these findings and the binding of anti-moesin IgG to neutrophils and monocytes, we detected the secretion of cytokines/ chemokines such as IFN-γ, MCP-1 and GM-CSF from these cells. Conclusions. The anti-moesin autoantibody existed in the serum of patients with MPO-AAV and was associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines targeting neutrophils with a cytoplasmic profile, which suggests that the anti-moesin autoantibody has the possibility to be a novel autoantibody developing vasculitis via neutrophil and endothelial cell activation. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. Source
Palatini P.,University of Padua |
Reboldi G.,University of Perugia |
Beilin L.J.,University of Western Australia |
Casiglia E.,University of Padua |
And 10 more authors.
The association of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variability with mortality and cardiovascular events is controversial. To investigate whether BP variability predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertension, we analyzed 7112 untreated hypertensive participants (3996 men) aged 52±15 years enrolled in 6 prospective studies. Median followup was 5.5 years. SD of night-time BP was positively associated with age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and average night-time BP (all P<0.001). In a multivariable Cox model, night-time BP variability was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (systolic, P<0.001/diastolic, P<0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (P=0.008/<0.0001), and cardiovascular events (P<0.001/<0.0001). In contrast, daytime BP variability was not an independent predictor of outcomes in any model. In fully adjusted models, a night-time systolic BP SD of ≥12.2 mm Hg was associated with a 41% greater risk of cardiovascular events, a 55% greater risk of cardiovascular death, and a 59% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with an SD of <12.2 mm Hg. The corresponding values for a diastolic BP SD of ≥7.9 mm Hg were 48%, 132%, and 77%. The addition of night-time BP variability to fully adjusted models had a significant impact on risk reclassification and integrated discrimination for all outcomes (relative integrated discrimination improvement for systolic BP variability: 9% cardiovascular events, 14.5% all-cause death, 8.5% cardiovascular death, and for diastolic BP variability: 10% cardiovascular events, 19.1% all-cause death, 23% cardiovascular death, all P<0.01). Thus, addition of BP variability to models of long-term outcomes improved the ability to stratify appropriately patients with hypertension among risk categories defined by standard clinical and laboratory variables. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source