Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science

Shuangqiao, China

Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science

Shuangqiao, China
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Chen G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Chen G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen G.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Science | Chen Y.,Nanjing Forestry University | And 5 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

Several high nitrogen use efficiency (high-NUE) rice cultivars have been developed to meet the increased food demand and urgent environmental concerns, but the effect of these cultivars on reducing N losses from paddy fields is not well documented. A two-year field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of China to evaluate the advantages of high-NUE rice on yields and N losses in 2011 and 2012. Two "high-NUE" rice cultivars and a conventional cultivar were compared at the same fertilizer N input of 200kgNha-1. Ammonia (NH3) volatilization, N2O emission, N leaching and runoff losses were monitored during the entire rice growing season within a rice-wheat rotation. The high-NUE rice cultivars Wuyunjing 23 (W23) and Zhendao 11 (Z11) achieved higher grain yields, and took up more N with a higher NUE than the conventional cultivar Wuyujing 3 (W3). There was a trend toward smaller N losses with the high-NUE cultivars W23 and Z11 (N leaching, N2O emissions and NH3 volatilization decreased by 12-23%, 5-10% and 2-8%, respectively), but the total reductions for the growing season compared to W3 were not statistically significant. Even though the high-NUE cultivars did not significantly decrease the absolute losses of N from the field, they did show lower N losses expressed on a yield-scaled basis than the conventional cultivar due to higher grain yields. Cultivars W23 and Z11 produced 21-27% less NH3 volatilization, 23-26% less N2O emission, 23-33% less N leaching, and 13-24% less N in runoff per ton of rice grain harvested than those of W3. Another cultivar Aoyusi 386 (A386), known to have a higher N uptake at early growth stages than W23 and Z11 was also planted in 2012. This cultivar significantly reduced N losses compared with the conventional variety. It was concluded that improving N uptake rate of high-NUE cultivars in the early stages of growth would be most effective in decreasing N losses and that the main part of N fertilizer applications should be later in the growing season than is currently practiced in the region. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dong H.-T.,Zhejiang University | Zhang L.,Zhejiang University | Zheng K.-L.,China National Rice Research Institute | Yao H.-G.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Science | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) is one type of transposable element (TE), which is largely found in eukaryotic genomes and involved in a wide variety of biological events. However, only few MITEs were proved to be currently active and their physiological function remains largely unknown.Results: We found that the amplicon discrepancy of a gene locus LOC_Os01g0420 in different rice cultivar genomes was resulted from the existence of a member of Gaijin-like MITEs (mGing). This result indicated that mGing transposition was occurred at this gene locus. By using a modified transposon display (TD) analysis, the active transpositions of mGing were detected in rice Jiahua No. 1 genome under three conditions: in seedlings germinated from the seeds received a high dose γ-ray irradiation, in plantlets regenerated from anther-derived calli and from scutellum-derived calli, and were confirmed by PCR validation and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or short additional DNA sequences at transposition sites post mGing transposition. It suggested that sequence modification was possibly taken place during mGing transposition. Furthermore, cell re-differentiation experiment showed that active transpositions of both mGing and mPing (another well studied MITE) were identified only in regenerated plantlets.Conclusions: It is for the first time that mGing active transposition was demonstrated under γ-ray irradiation or in cell re-differentiation process in rice. This newly identified active MITE will provide a foundation for further analysis of the roles of MITEs in biological process. © 2012 Dong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cai Y.,Zhejiang University | Lin L.,Zhejiang University | Cheng W.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang G.,Zhejiang University | Wu F.,Zhejiang University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

A hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Xiushui63) and tolerant (cv. Bing97252) rice cultivars to evaluate the difference in their response to Cd toxicity in the presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH). The results showed that Cd stress (5 and 50 μmol/l Cd) decreased plant fresh weight, contents of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, with Cd-sensitive genotype being more severely affected. Cd significantly decreased concentration and accumulation of Mn in roots/shoots, and Zn in shoots, but increased Cu concentration in roots/shoots. There was a significantly negative correlation between shoot Zn concentrations and shoot/root Cd concentrations, and between root Cd and Mn concentrations. Exogenous GSH significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition and markedly reduced Cd uptake in both genotypes. In addition, GSH induced a Cd-dose- and genotype-dependent effects on Cd-induced changes in mineral concentration/accumulation and chlorophyll content in rice seedlings. GSH alleviated Cd-induced decrease in root/shoot Zn and Ca concentrations and accumulation of Xiushui 63, while increased root Ca and Mn concentrations in Bing 97252 under 5 μmol/l Cd stress. In addition, GSH also significantly enhanced chlorophyll a and b contents of Bing 97252 in both 5 and 50 μmol/l Cd, and Xiushui 63 in 50 μmol Cd.

Qiao M.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Chen W.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science | Su J.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Zhang B.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) | Year: 2012

Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals. The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown. This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure, manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing, Jiaxing and Putian, China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment. The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity. Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination, but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost. Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure. © 2012 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Cai Y.,Zhejiang University | Cao F.,Zhejiang University | Cheng W.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang G.,Zhejiang University | Wu F.,Zhejiang University
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2011

Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted using Cd-sensitive (Xiushui63) and tolerant (Bing97252) rice genotypes to evaluate genotypic differences in response of photosynthesis and phytochelatins to Cd toxicity in the presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH). Plant height, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and biomass decreased in 5 and 50 μM Cd treatments, and Cd-sensitive genotype showed more severe reduction than the tolerant one. Cadmium stress caused decrease in maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and effective PSII quantum yield [Y(II)] and increase in quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)], with changes in Cd-sensitive genotype being more evident. Cadmium-induced phytochelatins (PCs), GSH, and cysteine accumulation was observed in roots of both genotypes, with markedly higher level in PCs and GSH on day 5 in Bing97252 compared with that measured in Xiushui63. Exogenous GSH significantly alleviated growth inhibition in Xiushui63 under 5 μM Cd and in both genotypes in 50 μM Cd. External GSH significantly increased chlorophyll content, Pn, Fv/Fm, and Y(II) of plants exposed to Cd, but decreased Y(NPQ) and the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN). GSH addition significantly increased root GSH content in plants under Cd exposure (except day 5 of 50 μM Cd) and induced up-regulation in PCs of 5 μM-Cd-treated Bing97252 throughout the 15-day and Xiushui63 of 5-day exposure. The results suggest that genotypic difference in the tolerance to Cd stress was positively linked to the capacity in elevation of GSH and PCs, and that alleviation of Cd toxicity by GSH is related to significant improvement in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic performance, and root GSH levels. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Wang S.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Wang S.,South China Agricultural University | Li S.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Liu Q.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 9 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2015

The deployment of heterosis in the form of hybrid rice varieties has boosted grain yield, but grain quality improvement still remains a challenge. Here we show that a quantitative trait locus for rice grain quality, qGW7, reflects allelic variation of GW7, a gene encoding a TONNEAU1-recruiting motif protein with similarity to C-terminal motifs of the human centrosomal protein CAP350. Upregulation of GW7 expression was correlated with the production of more slender grains, as a result of increased cell division in the longitudinal direction and decreased cell division in the transverse direction. OsSPL16 (GW8), an SBP-domain transcription factor that regulates grain width, bound directly to the GW7 promoter and repressed its expression. The presence of a semidominant GW7 TFA allele from tropical japonica rice was associated with higher grain quality without the yield penalty imposed by the Basmati gw8 allele. Manipulation of the OsSPL16-GW7 module thus represents a new strategy to simultaneously improve rice yield and grain quality. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

Bai X.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu L.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang C.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ge Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng W.-D.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science
Rice Science | Year: 2011

The effect of H2O2 pretreatment on Cd tolerance and translocation of rice seedlings were studied using two rice cultivars (N07-6 and N07-63) differing in Cd tolerance. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPT), phytochelatins (PCs) and the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) were compared between the two cultivars exposed to various treatments. The results showed that 50 μmol/L Cd exposure significantly inhibited rice growth, enhanced the production of GSH, NPT, PCs and MDA, and increased the activity of GST, and there were significant differences between the two cultivars. More Cd was transported into the shoot of N07-6. The H2O2 pretreatment alleviated Cd toxicity by further increasing GSH, NPT and PCs contents, as well as the GST activity in roots. The increase degrees of these parameters in N07-63 were higher than those in N07-6, suggesting that the tolerance of N07-63 was enhanced more significantly than N07-6. Hydrogen peroxide reduced Cd translocation to rice shoot but affected the Cd content in root differently. From the above results, it may be speculated that there were remarkable differences in the Cd detoxification and response to the H2O2 pretreatment between the two cultivars. © 2011 China National Rice Research Institute.

PubMed | Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B | Year: 2016

Mutation breeding is based on the induction of genetic variations; hence knowledge of the frequency and type of induced mutations is of paramount importance for the design and implementation of a mutation breeding program. Although ray irradiation has been widely used since the 1960s in the breeding of about 200 economically important plant species, molecular elucidation of its genetic effects has so far been achieved largely by analysis of target genes or genomic regions. In the present study, the whole genomes of six -irradiated M

PubMed | Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science and Zhejiang University
Type: | Journal: Functional & integrative genomics | Year: 2016

Soil heavy metal (HM) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production. For restricting the translocation of HM into grain, many proteins were regulated to involve in the process. To identify these proteins, 2D-based proteomic analysis was carried out using different rice genotypes with distinct Cd accumulation in grains and as affected by an alleviating regulator (AR) in field experiments. AR application improved grain quality, with increased contents in Glu, Cys, His, Pro, and protein. Twenty-six low-grain HM accumulation-associated protein species were identified and categorized as physiological functions via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, 8, 9, and 9 proteins exhibited higher accumulation, lower accumulation, and unchanged accumulation, respectively, in Xiushui817 (low accumulator) vs R8097 (high accumulator) under control conditions but showed differential accumulation patterns after AR application. These proteins included sucrose synthase 3, alanine aminotransferase, glutelin, cupin family protein, and zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 32. The differential expression of these protein species might contribute to decreased HM accumulation in grain via decreasing the protein accumulation which had high affinity to HM or regulating energy metabolism and signal transduction. Our findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of low-grain HM accumulation in rice and possible utilization of candidate protein species in developing low-grain HM accumulation genotypes.

Wu N.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Qiao M.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zhang B.,Shandong Agricultural University | Cheng W.-D.,Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Tetracyclines are commonly used antibiotics in the swine industry for disease treatment and growth promotion. Tetracycline resistance was determined in soils sampled from farmlands in the vicinity of nine swine farms located in three cities in China. Totally, 15 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes were commonly detected in soil samples, including seven efflux pump genes (tetA, tetC, tetE, tetG, tetK, tetL, tetA/P), seven ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) genes (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetS, tetT, tetW, tetB/P), and one enzymatic modification gene (tetX). The quantitative real-time PCR was further used to quantify five RPPs genes (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetT) and 16S rRNA gene abundances. The concentrations of total tetracyclines (5 typical tetracyclines and 10 of their degradation products) in these soils were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were found to range from 5.4 to 377.8 μgkg-1 dry soil. Bivariate correlation analysis confirmed that absolute tet gene copies (sum of tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW genes) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of tetracycline residues (r2 = 0.45, P < 0.05), ambient bacterial 16S-rRNA gene copies in each soil sample (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.01), and organic matter in soil (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.05), respectively. Finally, the phylogenetic analysis on tetM combined with culture-independent molecular techniques revealed at least five genotypes of tetM in nine soil samples. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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