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Han Z.X.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Han Z.X.,Chongqing Key Laboratory of Micro Nano Materials Engineering and Technology | Han Z.X.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Wetland Bioresources and Environmental Protection | Wu D.-D.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic and Nano-Metal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO2 partial pressure in the ocean, which may reach 950 ?atm by the end of the 21st century. An experiment was performed to test the effects of increased sea water concentrations of CO2 combined with heavy metals on mortality rates, metallothionein, immune funtion, and uptake kinetics of the bivalve Mytilus edulis L. As a result, the mortality rates of Mytilus edulis L fluctuated with pH variety in all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu) test seawater treatments compared to control group. It was demonstrated that in vivo Cd-, Pb-, or Cu pretreatment under acidifications can alleviate metallothionein by in vitro Cd, Pb, and Cu in soft tissues and suggested that acidification can aggravate heavy metals pollution and toxicity for marine organisms. Moreover, the fraction of eosinophilic cells increased over the 21 days period for Cd exposure, then decreased with 28 and 35 days incubation, the fraction of eosinophilic cells increased similar with Cd exposure and pH 8.2. The fraction of eosinophilic cells significantly increased from 32% to 53% of the hemocyte population over the 35-day period for Pb exposure and pH8.2, the fraction of eosinophilic cells increased from 35% to 58% of the hemocyte population over the 35-day period for Pb exposure and pH 6.2. Phagocytosis levels declined with increasing exposure time for Cd alone and phagocytosis levels declined with decreasing pH (from 8.2 to 6.2) with Cd exposure on 35 days. Mytilus edulis L in Pb with reduced pH (6.2) treatments also decreased their phagocytosis levels on 35 days. Further, phagocytosis decreased bigger than that of Pb with pH 8.2. At steady state equilibrium, CF of 109Cd was significantly higher at pH 6.2 and pH 7.7 than at pH 8.2, the accumulation of 203Pb was significantly higher at the lowest pH 6.2 level than at the two exposure levels (pH 7.7 and pH 8.2). Similarly, the lower the seawater pH 6.2, the more 63Cu was accumulated in the hemolymph of Mytilus edulis L. The results indicate that future reductions in pH caused by increased CO2 concentrations in the sea may have an impact on Mytilus edulis L combined with heavy metals pollution. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Han Z.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Han G.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Zhangmeng,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Lv C.-X.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This study was aimed at obtaining detailed information about the interaction of NaCl salinity and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration in the halophyte S.salsa, which was irrigated with five different salinity levels under ambient and elevated (530 ppm) CO 2. The results show that total soluble sugar concentration was significantly increased by salt-treatments in both leaves and roots, and that the most progressive sugar increments were observed in leaves and roots of S. salsa under the elevated CO 2. The Na + concentration in the leaves and roots increased with the increased NaCl concentration, the K + accumulation gradually decreaed by increasing salinity levels in leaves and roots. Proline increased in response to salt stress along with incremental NaCl concentration. The GB concentrations of leaves were significantly raised as NaCl levels increased. Electrolyte leakage increased in the leaves of S. salsa grown under NaCl stress. ψs of leaves and roots decreased as the NaCl concentration increase, and that elevated CO 2 both had markedly greater effects on ψs of leaves and roots. The osmotic adjustment values ascended with elevated CO 2 concentration in both leaves and roots. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Han Z.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Lv C.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau | Zheng Z.,Animal Quarantine Section
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry | Year: 2010

In this study the effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds (PBDEs), BDE-47 and BDE-99 on carassius aurats were discussed. The reproductive capacity viability and proliferation percent decreased with increasing BDE-47 and BDE-99 concentrations (p<0.05), presenting a dose-dependent manner. Physiological biomarkers such as cholesterol (CHL), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and vitamin were studied to reveal the toxicological effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 exposure. CHL levels generally decrease with increasing BDE-47 exposure. However, there were no significant differences between the samples and the control. As to BDE-99, the CHL level decreased as compared with the control level when the BDE-99 concentrations reached 20 μg/L (p<0.05). The degree of inhibition of the AChE increased with the increase of DE-47and BDE-99 concentrations. The EROD activity during 72 hours' exposure significantly increased to 20 μg/L for BDE-47 (p<0.05), however, EROD activity was not significantly different at different concentrations of BDE-99 (p<0.05). Carassius aurats hepatocytes reacted to the BDE-47 exposure with increasing EROD activities in the dose dependent manner. Although at lower concentrations, the induced effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were not significantly different, though BDE-47 showed strong induced effects on the EROD activity with increasing concentrations in carassius aurats hepatocytes. In contrast, BDE-99 did not influence EROD activity consistently. The VA level of carassius aurats was significantly different from that of the controls for BDE-99 (p<0.001), as far as the VA level was significantly lower of carassius aurats than the controls for BDE-47 (p<0.001). CHL, AChE, EROD, and VA levels in carassius aurats were differently affected by BDE-47 and BDE-99 exposures, therefore, they would be good indicators for exposure. © 2010 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Han Z.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Zhangmeng,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Lv C.-X.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Little is known about the potential behavior and ecotoxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms. To carefully address this issue, we conducted a comprehensive toxicity assessment, including NiO nanoparticles accumulation and toxicity tests as well as Lipid peroxidation (LPO), MDA content, mitochondrial depolarization and Reactive oxygen radical (ROS) analysis using Gracilaria lemaneiformis as a model organism. Our results demonstrated that the concentration of NiO Nanoparticles accumulated in Gracilaria lemaneiformis increased with the extended incubation time and a considerable amount of NiO Nanoparticles were still present in the bodies of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. Exposure to NiO nanoparticles led to significant reductions of cell viability between 20 and 60% relative to controls. Elevated lipid peroxidation in Gracilaria lemaneiformis exposed to NiO nanoparticles compared to control and induced increases in MDA levels with incubation time. Significantly enhanced percent of mitochondrial depolarization in nanometer size compared to controls and NiO nanoparticles significantly elevated ROS levels more than three fold at the highest concentration. Taken together, these findings indicate that NiO nanoparticles exposure, especially for long periods of time, may exert negative impact on population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Han Z.-X.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Zhang M.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Lv C.-X.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) are widely distributed environmentally persistent organic pollutants found at low levels in human and wildlife ecosystem. The objectives of the current study were to investigate toxicokinetic behaviors and modes of PFOS and PFOA on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The toxicokinetic behaviors and modes of PFOS and PFOA are different in tilapia during experimental periods. Exposure to both PFOS and PFOA was approximately 5 to 6 times higher for male tilapia than for female tilapia. The terminal half-life of PFOA in serum was about 4 times longer for male tilapia than for female tilapia. The apparent volume of distribution for PFOS and PFOA in the serum was about 3 to 4 times higher for female tilapia than for male tilapia. The lymphocytes level decreased rapidly with the increased PFOA concentration. A similar pattern was observed with the PFOS exposure, and it is remarkable that PFOS and PFOA were significantly accumulated in both PFOS and PFOA exposure but PFOA showed a greater effect than PFOS. PFOA blood concentrations were lesser than the limit of quantification in non-exposure tilapia during an uptake period, while measured PFOS concentrations were at least six times lesser than those in PFOS exposure. Tilapia weight gain was also decreased with statistical significance in all PFOA-treated groups, and the effect of PFOA was higher than that of PFOS. The effects of PFOA in survival percent were more pronounced in this case than that of PFOS. Moreover, PFOA had similar mode, and PFOS and PFOA can inhibit the 17β-HSD3 enzyme activity of tilapia. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Han Z.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | He G.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Wang J.,Nanjing University | Lu C.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
Chinese Journal of Geochemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, the joint effects of Cd(II), Pb(II) and atrazine (ATR) on Solidago Canadensis L. were investigated. The results showed that soil containing Cd, Pb and ATR could inhibit root elongation of Solidago Canadensis L., and that there was a positive linear relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation and the concentrations of Pb(II). The mixture of Cd(II) and Pb(II)-ATR in soil showed a significant adverse effect on root and shoot biomass of Solidago Canadensis L. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) contents increased slightly at the lower concentrations of Cd(II)-ATR, then decreased when Cd(II)-ATR concentrations were higher than those of 1. 0 TUmix(Cd+ATR). The toxic effect of Pb(II)-ATR on the ASA contents of Solidago Canadensis L. was greater than that of Cd(II)-ATR. Soluble sugar contents firstly decreased and then increased with increasing concentrations of Cd(II)-ATR and displayed fluctuation with increasing concentrations of Pb(II)-ATR. Total protein contents increased with increasing concentrations of Cd(II) and Pb(II)-ATR, relative to the control sample. The NP-SH contents showed a significant increase up to 12. 2 mg/gfw of Cd(II)-ATR, followed by a significant decline to 4. 5 mg/gfw after 14 days of exposure. The effect of Pb(II)-ATR was similar to that of Cd(II)-ATR but the amount of NP-SH was not higher than that of Cd(II)-ATR. © 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Han Z.-X.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | He G.-D.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Wang J.-H.,Jiangsu University | Lv C.-X.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Biomedicine | Year: 2011

In this study, the interaction influence of Cd(II) and nano-TiO2 on marine algae was studied by observing its aggregation and adsorption kinetics, accumulation of Cd(II) in algae in the presence of TiO2, and as a promoter on Cd(II) toxicity. The results showed that diffusion limited aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles takes place within 10 min in the absence of Cd(II). In the presence of Cd(II), the rate of aggregate growth is significantly higher than the rate for diffusion-limited aggregation around algae within 5 min, the TiO2 nanoparticles are more stable than in the presence of Cd(II). That is, in the presence of Cd(II), enhanced aggregation occurs of TiO2 nanoparticles. Cd(II) was adsorbed onto algae quickly in the presence TiO2 nanoparticles and equilibrium was reached within 30 min and relatively slow in the absence of Cd(II). The equilibrium concentration of the adsorption of Cd(II) is longer than that of the Cd(II), and TiO2 nanoparticles exist synchronously for the algae, The bioaccumulation of Cd(II) in algae, in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles suspensions, showed a fast uptake of Cd(II). Moreover, it demonstrates that the degree of inhibition of the growth rate increases with the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, which presents a dose-dependent manner. The increase in Cd(II) toxicity was observed in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles; it is found that TiO2 nanoparticles can accelerate Cd(II) bioaccumulation and increase toxicity. The result underlines that the potential interactions of engineered nanoparticles with existing environmental contaminants must be taken into account in environmental risk assessments of nanoparticles. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Han Z.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Zhangmeng,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Lv C.,Jiaonan Agricultural Bureau
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This study discussed the effect factors of biodegradation on phenanthrene by P.putida. The outcomes showed that the optimal temperature conditions was 35°C, and the optimal pH was pH7.5, and that under the shaking condition increases the availability of phe. The effect of glucose increase in the concentration of glucose showed repressive effect. Moreover, the presence of salicylate increased the phenanthrene degradation to some extent. Phenanthrene degradation in presence of succinic acid did not differ significantly, this implies that the presence of other carbon sources does not completely inhibited. Therefore, phenanthrene may be co-utilized by p. putida along with other substrates. And that the addition of non-ionic surfactants bring about further phe biodegradation, the biodegradability of phe is greatly improved in presence of surfactants at proper concentrations. The phenanthrene was degraded higher efficiently at higher phe concentrations under the presence of fluorene, phe and fluorene present an obviously co-metabolism.

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