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Wei Y.-B.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng Y.-X.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang G.-C.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

The formation and maintaining mechanism of biodiversity is the core issue in ecology. The relative importance of deterministic process based on ecological niche theory and stochastic process based on neutral theory to structuring spatial diversity pattern was studied in a temperate forest community, the spatial scales at which both processes worked were quantified. On the basis of mapped trees in a 520 m × 420 m plot of half-mature forest, individual species-area relationship was used to quantify the effect of specific species on the local species diversity. Both homogeneous Poisson process and heterogeneous Poisson process were used to test the significance of target species biased from neutrals. The results showed that most of tree species were diversity accumulators at small spatial scales except Pinus koraiensis, Larix olgensis and Populus cathayana. Diversity accumulators and diversity neutrals together structured the spatial diversity. The relative importance of both diversity accumulator and diversity neutral was closely related with spatial scale. The proportion of diversity accumulators decreased with the increase of spatial scale. On the contrary, that of diversity neutrals increased with the increase of spatial scales. Diversity repellers kept in a low proportion and had little changes. Diversity accumulators dominated at small and medium spatial scales in the community, while diversity neutrals dominated at large spatial scales. Thus, deterministic process and stochastic process were coupled and structured the pattern of local spatial diversity together in the studied temperate half-mature forest. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Zhang Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Lin T.-X.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Wang G.-C.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Sun G.-W.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Fan X.-H.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

This paper is aimed to study several key problems about the rate and process of litter decomposition of several main tree species in the natural Korean pine-broadleaved forest ecosystem in Jiaohe, Jilin of China. The research contents include the decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, mixed effects and mechanism of mixed effects in litters of several common plant species (Pinnus koraiensis, Quercus mongolica and Acer mono). The research method was litter bag burying. The results were: 1) The initial concentrations of nutrients in the litters varied significantly, and the initial concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were significantly and positively correlated with the decomposition rate. 2) The ratios of mass loss among the litters of different tree species varied significantly, and the variance increased over time, but not followed the linear pattern. 3) The decomposition rates of litters increased at first phase of whole decomposition process, then became steady after middle phase. 4) The decomposition rates of broadleaved tree species were higher than those of conifer if considering the decomposition of a single litter. 5) During the 395 days decomposition, the concentrations of organic carbon (C), total N and P, and total potassium (K) showed the changes dynamically. Both N and P were accumulated, but N released remarkably after short-term accumulation; The C and K had net release; the ratio of C to N decreased continiously. 6) There were great mixed effects in the decomposition rates of litter mixtures of Pinnus koraiensis-Quercus mongolica and Quercus mongolica-Acer mono, also the same mixed effects to the nutrient dynamics during the decomposition process, especially for N and P, however the modes (positive or negative) of mixed effects and strengths were extremely complex. Whether or not mixed effects occurred and which mode mixture effect is in were determined by the characteristics of composed litters. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Ma Z.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Shi L.,Beijing Forestry University | Wu X.-J.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Zhang C.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

The formation and maintaining mechanism of biodiversity of the temperate forests is still open to theoretical discussion. The effects of 21 tree species on local community diversity were examined by individual species-area relationship model. The results showed that: 1) the effect of different tree species on the local diversity pattern was different. Betula platyphylla, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix olgensis, Maackia amurensis, Picea jezoen, Pinus koraiensis, Populus cathayana, Populus davidiana, Symplocarpus foetidus, Tilia amurensis, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Acer mono, Acer tegmentosum and Acer ukurunduense acted as diversity accumulators at all studied spatial scales, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum and Betula costata as diversity repellers, Phellodendron amurense and Quercus mongolica as neutral at most spatial scales, and Ulmus laciniata and Tilia mandschurica as diversity repellers only at some spatial scales. 2) The proportion of diversity accumulators declined with increasing scales. However, it was still higher than that of repellers and neutrals at all studied scales of 0-50 m, indicating that it was significantly scale-dependent. The proportion of repellers and neutrals always stayed at about 20%. Therefore, diversity accumulators played a determinant role in the structuring processes of community diversity in the secondary conifer and broadleaf mixed forest. Our result indicated that niche theory plays an important role in maintaining species diversity in temperate forest community. Meanwhile, the function of random processes represented by neutral species in the construction of community structure should not be ignored. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Yao Y.-T.,Beijing Forestry University | Yuan Z.-L.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Wei Y.-B.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhao X.-H.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

Understanding the effects of species on diversity assembly of local community from the perspective of plant population contributes to revealing the effect of interspecific interactions on the community assemblage, which would be likely covered when discussing at the community levels. The effects of specific species on local diversity patterns were studied at different spatial scales. And the relative contributions of diversity accumulators, neutrals and repellers to community diversity assembly were also examined. On the basis of a 5.2 hm2 research plot established in a secondary Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla forest, individual species-area relationship model was used to calculate the ISAR and mISAR curves of 29 tree species. The complete spatial randomness method was used to test the significance of deviation of individual species-area relationship from the neutral patterns. Our results indicated that the effects of different tree species on local community diversity differ at varying spatial scales. Abies nephrolepis, Acer barbinerve, Acer mono, Populus davidiana, Sorbus alnifolia and Tilia amurensis are diversity accumulators in the research plot. Betula platyphylla and Ulmus davidiana var. japonica are diversity repellers. Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Malus baccata, Syringa reticulata var. mandshurica are neutrals while other tree species are diversity accumulators at small spatial scales. A significant scale-dependent effect was derived from the influences of diversity accumulators, neutrals and repellers on the assembly of community diversity. The largest proportion of diversity accumulators was found in the medium and small scales of 0-36 m, and they determined the diversity assembly in forest community. In contrast, neutral species shared the highest proportion and dominated the diversity assembly of forest community at larger scales. Therefore, diversity accumulators and neutrals together spatially structured community diversity assembly; however, the relative effects of them depended on the spatial scales of discussed issues. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Xu W.,Beijing Forestry University | Cheng M.-J.,Research Institute of Forestry Investigation and Planning of Jilin City | Lin T.-X.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Cheng Y.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

The effect of plant species on the community diversity pattern has long been a key issue in ecology. A 21.12 hm2 near-mature forest plot was established in Jiaohe of Jilin Province. Totally, 32405 woody individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm belonging to 50 woody species were recorded. Individual species-area relationship (ISAR) was used to quantify the effects of 30 woody species on local community diversity pattern. Complete spatial randomness simulation was adopted to calculate the significance of facilitation or suppression. The results show that: 1) ISAR value is generally higher than mISAR value for the same tree species in the same sampling area, because ISAR model ignores asymmetry of competition. The mISAR curves for different tree species are more dispersed, and have higher differnentiation degree and obvious scale dependence. 2) At 0-50 m scales, Acer barbinerve, Cerasus maximowiczii, Euonymus macropterus, Padus racemosa, Ulmus macrocarpa, Acer ukurunduense, Corylus mandshurica and Acer tegmentosum are diversity accumulators while Sorbus alnifolia is a neutral species. Pinus koraiensis, Acer mono and Juglans mandshurica are diversity repellers at most spatial scales. Most of the other tree species act as diversity accumulators at small scales. 3) Diversity accumulators dominate the community diversity pattern at the small and medium scales. Diversity accumulators and neutrals jointly affect the structuring of the community diversity pattern at large scales, and the influence of stochastic process is relatively stronger. Therefore, deterministic process represented by accumulators and repellers and stochastic process represented by neutral species collectively determine the structuring processes of community diversity pattern, and the effects of two processes differ at different spatial scales. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Gao J.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang J.,Forestry Bureau of Changbai Mountain Conservation and Development Area | Cheng Y.-X.,Beijing Forestry University | Sun G.-W.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

So far, the effects of spatial distribution of tree species on the community diversity patterns are not well known yet. In this study, the effects of tree species on local diversity patterns were validated at tree population level. Data from three 5.2 hm2 sample plots, a conifer and broadleaf mixed forest, a Tilia-Korean pine forest and a spruce-fir forest in Changbai Mountains were used for analysis. Ripley's K function was used to examine the spatial distribution of tree species. Our result revealed that: 1) most of studied species were aggregated at the small scales in three research plots. Acer barbinerve, Acer mono and Quercus mongolica were distributed randomly or uniformly at the large spatial scales (>30 m) in the conifer-broadleaf mixed forest. The spatial scales had little effect on the distribution pattern of the Tilia-Korean pine forest and the spruce-fir forest, and the spatial patterns were almost the same at different spatial scales; 2) at species level, the same tree species had different effects on diversity patterns in different forests. However, at community level, the same pattern of diversity assemblage was observed in the conifer-broadleaf mixed forest, the Tilia-Korean pine forest and the spruce-fir forest. In general, the proportion of diversity accumulators decreased while that of diversity neutrals increased with increasing spatial scales. The diversity accumulators played leading role in community assemblage at the small and medium scales. However, diversity neutrals determined the pattern of community diversity at larger spatial scales; 3) there was no obvious correlation between spatial distribution and diversity maintenance for most of tree species. Meanwhile, for some coniferous species such as Abies nephrolepis, Pinus koraiensis and Picea asperata, the larger range of spatial scales they were aggregated, the larger range of spatial scales they acted as repellers and neutrals. We suggest that the forming and maintaining mechanism of community diversity should be studied from the point of species aggregation effects in the future. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.


Fan C.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Yuan Z.-L.,Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area | Zhao X.-H.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2014

Both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation are the key ecological processes affecting the structuring of community diversity pattern. The spatial scales at which different ecological processes work were determined in the structuring of species diversity pattern. The effect of 40 woody species on the local species richness was examined by individual species-area relationship model. The significance of deviation of individual species-area relationship from neutral condition was analyzed by homogeneous Poisson process, heterogeneous Poisson process, homogeneous Thomas process and heterogeneous Thomas process. The results revealed that Corylus mandshurica, Rhamnus davurica, Lonicera praeflorens, Acer ginnala and Fraxinus rhynchophylla were diversity accumulators at 0-50 m spatial scales. Tilia mandshurica at 0-25 m scale and Carpinus cordata at 0-35 m scale were diversity repellers, while most of other species were neutrals. The dispersal limitation greatly affected the structuring of community diversity pattern; however, the effect of habitat filtering was relative small. Heterogeneous Thomas model could simultaneously exclude the effects of habitat filtering and dispersal limitation. The results indicated that diversity accumulators were dominant at 0-20 m spatial scales in forest community. The proportion of diversity neutrals at scale >20 m increased with the increasing spatial scales, and the diversity neutrals dominated the structuring of the community diversity. Diversity repellers kept in a very low proportion at all scales. Thus, the niche differentiation and neutral processes jointly determined the structuring processes of community diversity, and the relative importance of both was closely correlated with the spatial scales. ©, 2014, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.

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