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Li Q.,Nanchang University | Wang X.,Nanchang University | Dai T.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The production of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is an important stage in the growth and spread of cancerous tumors. Anti-angiogenesis is one strategy for controlling tumor progression. This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-angiogenic activities of a proanthocyanidins (PAs) extract from Choerospondias axillaris peels. HPLC-MS analysis revealed that numerous oligomeric forms of the PAs were detected in the PAs extract, including dimers, trimers, tetramers, and flavan-3-ol monomers. The PAs extract possessed appreciable free radical scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH = 164 ± 7 μg/mL, IC50/ABTS = 154 ± 6 μg/mL), potent reducing power (0.930 ± 0.030 g AAE/g), and strong cellular antioxidant activity (EC50 = 10.2 ± 1.4 and 38.9 ± 2.1 μg/mL without or with PBS-wash, respectively). It could also retard various stages of angiogenesis, such as the migration of endothelial cells and the creation of tubes, without causing toxicity to the cells. With regard to intracellular signal transduction, the PAs extract attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and p38MAPK dose-dependently in endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. In transgenic zebrafish embryo, new blood vessel formation was suppressed by PAs extract in a concentration-dependent manner at 72 h post fertilization. Thus, these results suggest that PAs from C. axillaris peels could be a good source of natural inhibitors to target angiogenesis. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Li Q.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Li T.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The influence of passage through a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) on the stability and bioaccessibility of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit (Choerospondias axillaris) peel was studied. In addition, the effects of the simulated GIT on the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of proanthocyanidins extracts were evaluated. Gastric digestion had little effect on total polyphenol content (TPC) or mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of crude and purified extracts. However, intestinal digestion led to a significant decrease (about 26% and 19%) in TPC and (about 12% and 7%) in mDP for crude and purified extracts, respectively. The observed reduction in TPC and mDP levels was attributed to interactions of proanthocyanidins with pancreatic enzymes, rather than due to the chemical conditions during digestion. Only small flavan-3-ol molecules (monomers, dimers and trimers) could diffuse into the dialysis tubing used to simulate the intestinal wall. Changes in antioxidant activity during digestion were correlated to changes in TPC. After simulated GIT digestion, over 85% of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of both extracts was preserved. These results indicate that the majority of the proanthocyanidins maintained their biological activities after passage through the simulated GIT, and were therefore still capable of providing valuable health benefits. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhai Y.-X.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Li T.,Nanchang University | Liu J.-Y.,Jiangxi Qiyunshan Food Co. | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2015

Nine elements in Choerospondias axillaris flesh, peels, aqueous extractives and gastric digesta were determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in the present study. The results showed that the contents of Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn, Al, Mg, Cu, K and P in the flesh were 27.37, 269.88, 1.51, 2.45, 1.95, 195.30, 2.45, 2970.11, and 133.94 μg·g-1, respectively. They are lower than that in the peels, about 40.31%, 11.70%, 21.68%, 4.27%, 10.58%, 15.76%, 68.72%, 42.04%, and 22.59%, respectively. For microwave assistant extraction, the release rate of Mn was highest (81.68%), while Fe was lowest (4.42%) in the flesh. The release rate of Zn was the highest (79.00%), while that of Al was the lowest (4.94%) in the peels. Except Fe, Cu and Zn, the release rates of the other elements in flesh were higher than those in the peels. After gastric digestion, the release rates of nine elements were 3.25%~87.51% in the flesh and 7.11%~50.69% in the peels. The release rates of minerals in the flesh were found to be higher than those in the peels except Fe and Cu. Microwave assistant extraction can more efficiently release Fe, Ca, Mn, Mg and K from the flesh than the gastric digestion do. While gastric digestion had a significant effect on the peels, the release rates of elements, except Zn, were higher than those in microwave assistant extraction. Therefore, the difference of distribution and release of mineral elements between peels and flesh of Choerospondias axillaris was understood, which will provide a positive guide for further study of bioavailability of minerals for human body. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li Q.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Li T.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 5 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The influence of passage through a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) on the stability and bioaccessibility of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit (Choerospondias axillaris) peel was studied. In addition, the effects of the simulated GIT on the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of proanthocyanidins extracts were evaluated. Gastric digestion had little effect on total polyphenol content (TPC) or mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of crude and purified extracts. However, intestinal digestion led to a significant decrease (about 26% and 19%) in TPC and (about 12% and 7%) in mDP for crude and purified extracts, respectively. The observed reduction in TPC and mDP levels was attributed to interactions of proanthocyanidins with pancreatic enzymes, rather than due to the chemical conditions during digestion. Only small flavan-3-ol molecules (monomers, dimers and trimers) could diffuse into the dialysis tubing used to simulate the intestinal wall. Changes in antioxidant activity during digestion were correlated to changes in TPC. After simulated GIT digestion, over 85% of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of both extracts was preserved. These results indicate that the majority of the proanthocyanidins maintained their biological activities after passage through the simulated GIT, and were therefore still capable of providing valuable health benefits. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Q.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Li T.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2015

Bioactive proanthocyanidins were isolated from the peel of Choerospondias axillaris fruit, which is a waste product of the food processing industry. Compositional analysis indicated that the proanthocyanidins had extension units mainly consisting of epicatechin gallate or epicatechin, and terminal units mainly consisting of catechin. Numerous polymeric forms of the molecules were detected, including monomers, dimers, and trimers. Certain fractions exhibited strong α-amylase or α-glucosidase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, their inhibitory activities depended on their degree of polymerization and galloylation. For example, the most bioactive fraction had α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values) of 541 and 3.1 μg mL-1, respectively. This study demonstrates that proanthocyanidins from C. axillaris peels can inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro and may therefore serve as antidiabetic ingredients in functional or medical foods. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li Q.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Li T.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects, but comprehensive information on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its fruits is still lacking. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. RESULTS: The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than those of flesh. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS2) analysis revealed that (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•)-scavenging ability. PP showed a significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49μg mL-1 to HepG2 cells and 101.90 and 102.61μg mL-1 to Caco-2 cells respectively. CONCLUSION: This is the first detailed report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


Li Q.,Nanchang University | Wang X.,Nanchang University | Chen J.,Nanchang University | Liu C.,Nanchang University | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

An extract isolated from Choerospondias axillaris peels was separated into five fractions using size-exclusion chromatography. The structural composition and mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of these fractions were then characterized by acid-catalysis followed by HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity of each fraction was determined using a combination of chemical-based methods (DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdate assay) and a cellular-based assay. All fractions tested were found to have high total phenolics contents and were rich in proanthocyanidins. The mDP of fractions (F1-F5) ranged from 1.92 to 9.25. When tested by the chemical-based assays, the antioxidant activity of the fractions did not depend on molecular weight of the phenolics. Conversely, when tested by the cellular-based assay the antioxidant activity actually decreased with increasing molecular weight of the proanthocyanidins. These experiments highlight the limitations of using chemical-based assays to establish the antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins within biological systems. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Jiangxi Qiyunshan Food Co., Nanchang University and University of Massachusetts Amherst
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

An extract isolated from Choerospondias axillaris peels was separated into five fractions using size-exclusion chromatography. The structural composition and mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of these fractions were then characterized by acid-catalysis followed by HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity of each fraction was determined using a combination of chemical-based methods (DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdate assay) and a cellular-based assay. All fractions tested were found to have high total phenolics contents and were rich in proanthocyanidins. The mDP of fractions (F1-F5) ranged from 1.92 to 9.25. When tested by the chemical-based assays, the antioxidant activity of the fractions did not depend on molecular weight of the phenolics. Conversely, when tested by the cellular-based assay the antioxidant activity actually decreased with increasing molecular weight of the proanthocyanidins. These experiments highlight the limitations of using chemical-based assays to establish the antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins within biological systems.


PubMed | Nanchang University and Jiangxi Qiyun Shan Food Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects, but comprehensive information on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its fruits is still lacking. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris.The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than those of flesh. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS(2) ) analysis revealed that (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH() )-scavenging ability. PP showed a significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49g mL(-1) to HepG2 cells and 101.90 and 102.61g mL(-1) to Caco-2 cells respectively.This is the first detailed report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


PubMed | Jiangxi Qiyunshan Food Co., Nanchang University and King Abdulaziz University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food & function | Year: 2015

Bioactive proanthocyanidins were isolated from the peel of Choerospondias axillaris fruit, which is a waste product of the food processing industry. Compositional analysis indicated that the proanthocyanidins had extension units mainly consisting of epicatechin gallate or epicatechin, and terminal units mainly consisting of catechin. Numerous polymeric forms of the molecules were detected, including monomers, dimers, and trimers. Certain fractions exhibited strong -amylase or -glucosidase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, their inhibitory activities depended on their degree of polymerization and galloylation. For example, the most bioactive fraction had -amylase and -glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values) of 541 and 3.1 g mL(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates that proanthocyanidins from C. axillaris peels can inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro and may therefore serve as antidiabetic ingredients in functional or medical foods.

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