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Xu X.,Tongji University | Zhang Y.,Tongji University | Lin D.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Zhang J.,Tongji University | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Schistosomiasis remains a highly prevalent and serious parasitic disease. A major factor preventing its effective management is the scarcity of effective diagnostic tools. We did a genome-wide identification of diagnostic protein markers for schistosome infection and assessed their diagnostic validity in a field study. Methods: We predicted putative secreted proteins of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSPs) and expressed them as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins. The fusion proteins were arrayed on glutathione (GSH)-immobilised microplates and screened with serum samples from patients with schistosomiasis diagnosed by the Kato-Katz method. We further assessed an identified protein marker for sensitivity and specificity, first in infected serum samples collected from Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces, China, and then through a field study, done in two villages located in a high schistosomiasis-endemic area of the southeast of China. Findings: Of 204 recombinant proteins, 35 yielded seropositive reactions, eight showed strong immunoreactivity, and only one (SjSP-13) reacted to the entire panel of 14 archived samples. The reactivity of SjSP-13 to 476 serum samples showed 90·4% (95% CI 86·5-93·5) sensitivity and 98·9% (95% CI 95·9-99·9) specificity. Of 1371 residents enrolled in a field study from Dec 6, 2010, to June 23, 2011, only 74 individuals were identified as being egg-positive, whereas 465 were diagnosed as positive by the SjSP-13-based ELISA kit (rSP13-ELISA). Of the 394 individuals found egg-negative but rSP13-ELISA-positive, 363 (92·4%) were confirmed to be positive for schistosome infection by PCR detection of S japonicum SjR2 retrotransposon. Interpretation: The application of this sensitive, specific, and affordable rSP13-ELISA method should help reduce schistosomiasis transmission through targeted treatment of individuals, particularly with low intensity infections, and therefore support schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. Funding: National 973 project in China. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Federal University, Lafia, Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Natural History Museum in London, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases and Zhejiang Academy of Medical science
Type: | Journal: Advances in parasitology | Year: 2016

Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The Peoples Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The Peoples Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The Peoples Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The Peoples Republic of China.

Yu L.-L.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science | Ding J.-Z.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science | Wen L.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science | Lou D.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Background: Schistosomiasis japonica (schistosomiasis) is a zoonosis that can seriously affect human health. At present, the immunodiagnostic assays for schistosomiasis detection are time-consuming and require well-trained personnel and special instruments, which can limit their use in the field. Thus, there is a pressing need for a simple and rapid immunoassay to screen patients on a large scale. In this study, we developed a novel rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA) to detect anti-Schisaosoma japonicum antibodies in human serum. Results: Using latex microspheres as a color probe, DLIA was established to test standard positive and negative sera, in comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of DLIA were 95.10% (97/102) and 94.91% (261/275), respectively. The cross-reaction rates with clonorchiosis, intestinal nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and paragonimiasis were 0, 0, 0 and 42.11% respectively. All the results showed no significant difference to the ELISA. In field tests, 333 human serum samples from an endemic area were tested with DLIA, and compared with ELISA and Kato-Katz method. There was no significant difference between DLIA and ELISA on positive and negative rates of detection; however, significant differences existed between DLIA and Kato-Katz method, and between ELISA and Kato-Katz method. The kappa value between DLIA and ELISA was 0.90. Conclusions: This is the first study in which DLIA was used to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum antibody. The results show that DLIA is a simple, rapid, convenient, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and is therefore very suitable for large-scale field applications and clinical detection. © 2011 Yu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Alberts C.J.,Rotterdam University | Smith W.C.S.,University of Aberdeen | Meima A.,Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Rijnmond | Wang L.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Richardus J.H.,Rotterdam University
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011

Objective To assess different countries' chances of attaining the 2011-2015 global leprosy target set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and to assess the strategy's effect on the prevalence of grade 2 disability (G2D). Methods Trends in G2D rate were analysed for Brazil, China, India and Thailand and figures were compared with the WHO target: a 35% decrease by 2015 relative to the 2010 baseline. To estimate the prevalence of G2D in 2015 and 2035 for each country three assumptions were made: (i) maintenance of the current trend; (ii) attainment of the WHO target, and (iii) reduction of G2D by 50% every 5 years relative to 2010. Findings Since 1995, the G2D rate has decreased every 5 years in Brazil, China, India and Thailand by 12.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 6.6-18.3), 7.7% (95% CI: 1.1-12.8), 53.7% (95% CI: 38.1-65.4) and 35.9% (95% CI: 23.4-46.3), respectively. New cases with G2D detected after 2010 will contribute 15% (Brazil), 3% (China), 2.5% (India) and 4% (Thailand) to the total prevalence of G2D in 2015. If no policies are changed, between 2015 and 2035, the prevalence of G2D will decrease by more than half in China, India and Thailand, and by 16% in Brazil. Conclusion The implications of attaining the WHO target are different for each country and using indicators other than G2D prevalence will help monitor progress. The strategy will not immediately reduce the prevalence of G2D, but if it is applied consistently over the next 25 years, its long-term effect can be substantial.

Xie S.Y.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases | Year: 2010

To synthesize and express the gene of egg protein IPSE (IL-4-inducing principle of Schistosoma mansoni eggs) and evaluate its immunologic characteristics. The IPSE gene of S. mansoni was synthesized by overlapping PCR, and confirmed by DNA sequencing, The recombinant plasmid IPSE-pET32a(+) was constructed by inserting the gene of IPSE into expression vector pET32a(+) at the downstream of thioredoxin (Trx) coding sequence. The recombinant plasmid IPSE-pET32a(+) was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. Large-scale fusion protein was prepared and purified with Ni affinity chromatography gel under denaturing conditions. A small amount of soluble Trx-IPSE was obtained by dialyzing the fusion protein in a large volume of PBS. Western blotting was used to detect if the recombinant IPSE was recognized by the IgG antibody in the pooled patient sera of schistosomiasis japonica and its binding capacity to the non-specific IgE antibody in the sera of healthy persons. DNA sequencing confirmed that the nucleotide sequence of synthesized IPSE gene was completely identical to the native one. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant plasmid IPSE/pET32a(+) expressed a fusion protein with an Mr 35700 after being induced by IPTG. The pure fusion protein Trx-IPSE reacted positively with the pooled sera of schistosomiasis patients under either denaturing or renaturing conditions. The protein Trx-IPSE also reacted with the nonspecific IgE in the sera of healthy persons. The IPSE gene of Schistosoma mansoni has been synthesized, and the recombinant can react with natural antibody IgG against S. japonicum and non-specifically bind to IgE antibody.

Xiang J.,Okayama University | Chen H.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Ishikawa H.,Okayama University
Parasitology International | Year: 2013

Background: Poyang Lake, the largest fresh water lake in China, is the major transmission site of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Epidemics of schistosomiasis japonica have threatened the health of residents and stunted social-economic development there. Objective: This article aims at evaluating the effect of various control measures against schistosomiasis: selective mass treatment (ST), targeted mass treatment (TT), mass treatment for animal reservoirs (MT), and health education (HE), on reduction of the prevalence through simulations based on a mathematical model. Methods: We proposed a mathematical model, which is a system of ordinary differential equations for the transmission of S. japonicum among humans, bovines, and snails. The model takes into account the seasonal variation of the water level of Poyang Lake that is caused by the backflow of the Yangtze River and inflow from five small rivers, which influences the transmission of S. japonicum. For the purpose of dealing with the age-specific prevalence and intensity of infection, the human population was classified into four age categories in the model. We carried out several simulations resulting from the execution of ST and TT for elementary school children (E Sch), and combinations of ST, MT, and HE. Results: The simulations indicated that all of the control measures only for humans had a trend of revival after interruption, and a combination of ST and MT has a significant effect on reducing human infection. Although TT and HE had a significant effect on the prevalence in the E Sch group, it had little effect on the overall human population. Conclusion: The simulations indicate that measures targeted to bovines such as chemotherapy besides humans will be vital to eliminate the transmission of S. japonicum in the Poyang Lake region. Moreover, it is desirable to improve health education for fishermen and herdsmen. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Xie S.-Y.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Yuan M.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Ji M.-J.,Nanjing Medical University | Hu F.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: In recent field surveys, we failed to detect the presence of specific antibody against Schistosoma japonicum in some egg-positive patients by commonly used immunodiagnostic kits. To find out whether low levels of specific antibody truly exist among egg-positive individuals and elucidate the underlying immune mechanisms, we carried out a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in a S. japonicum low transmission endemic area of Poyang Lake region, China and compared the humoral and cellular immune characteristics between S. japonicum high and low antibody responders. Methods. Kato-Katz thick smear assay was used to determine the schistosomiasis status of 3,384 participants residing in two Poyang Lake region villages, Jiangxi, China. Among the 142 stool egg-positive participants, we identified low and high S. japonicum antibody responders with soluble egg antigen (SEA) and adult worm antigen (AWA) specific IgG levels by adopting ROC curve analysis. To compare the humoral and cellular immune responses between high and low S. japonicum antibody responders, serum specific antibody levels as well as the percentage of T lymphocyte subpopulation in PMBC, and cell stimulated cytokines (IFN- gamma and interlukin-10) were detected. Results: Eight S. japonicum egg-positive participants were defined as low antibody responders. Although the percentage of CD3+T cells in low responders was slightly higher and the percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells were lower than those in high responders, the differences between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05). AWA -stimulated interlukin-10 level was significantly higher in high responders, while other cytokines did not show differences between two groups. For antibody profiles, except AWA specific IgA, significant differences of each antibody isotype between low and high responders were detected (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study confirmed that there are S. japonicum antibody low responders among schistosome egg-positive residents in S. japonicum low-transmission areas in China. Thus, mis-diagnosis using immune-diagnosis kits do exist. Significant differences of responding antibody levels between low and high responders were detected, while no major cellular response changes were observed. © 2014 Xie et al.; Licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zhang J.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Lin D.-D.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control | Year: 2013

Owing to human parasitic diseases being related to behavior, the health education as an important measure to prevent parasite infections through human behavior intervention, has played an important role in the process of parasitic disease prevention and control in rural area of China. This paper comments on the development history of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control, current intervention modes and the effect of the health education for parasitic diseases in rural area. This paper also summarizes the role and impact of different modes of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control and gives some suggestions to future development of the health education in rural area under current prevalent situation of parasitic diseases.

Lv S.-B.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Lin D.-D.,Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control | Year: 2014

Schistosomiasis is closely related to natural environmental factors. The changes of environmental factors, such as temperature, hydrology, vegetation, soil etc., all impact the scope and extent of schistosomiasis transmission. Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake and one of the major endemic areas with schistosomiasis in China. With global warming, the implementation of the Three Gorges Dam operation, and the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Planning, the natural environment in Poyang Lake area has been and will continue to change, especially, the water environment and climate environment, which are more closely related to the schistosomiasis transmission. These changes, to some extent, have affected and will continue to affect the prevalence and transmission of schistosomiasis. This article reviews the relationship between the natural environment and its changes and schistosomiasis transmission in the Poyang Lake region.

PubMed | Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2015

Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, is still a serious public health problem in China. It is important for schistosomiasis control to prevent from infection and advanced patients. Recent years, however, the form of the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in China was changed these days. Paying attention to the quality of life of these patients already infected with S. japonicum becomes a new objective to schistosomiasis control program. Although most of the chronic infections with S. japonicum will finally appear as liver fibrosis symptoms, it is still unknown liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis, and there is also no evidence whether S. japonicum infection will directly cause damage to liver cells. Thus, this study investigated 494 patients diagnosed with S. japonicum (87.7%) and 69 healthy subjects from a endemic areas belonging to Jiangxi Province of China and aimed to evaluate the liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis and possible associations with coinfection with HBV. The results showed that the hepatic metabolism situation significantly changed in patients infected with S. japonicum; meanwhile, the abnormal rates of ALT and AST in patients with schistosomiasis were significantly higher than that in the control group, which confirmed that patients infected with S. japonicum not only had damaged liver function but also the hepatic cells were directly influenced. And the coinfection of CHB and schistosomiasis japonica can be a risk factor for more serious outcomes in patients from endemic areas. These results give us the advice that in the further treatment of patients infected with S. japonicum, especially these coinfections, we should better give the routine liver-protection treatment in advance.

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