Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil

Jinzhou, China

Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil

Jinzhou, China
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Sun Y.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Huang S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yu X.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Plant and Soil | Year: 2015

Aims: The stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) is of great importance in controlling long-term carbon (C) sequestration and feedbacks of soil C pools to climate change. It has been well documented that rice cropping and organic amendments could enhance SOC stocks, while the stability of the sequestered C has not been well understood yet. The objective of this study was to examine the difference in SOC content and stability between a paddy and an upland field under long-term fertilization and to explore the potential link between SOC chemical and biological stability. Methods: Soils were collected from two adjacent long-term paddy (annually double-rice cropping) and upland (annually double-corn cropping) experiments with the same soil parent material, where different fertilization regimes were initiated in 1981 and 1986, respectively. The chemical and biological stability of SOC were measured by acid hydrolysis and aerobic incubations, respectively. Results: The C concentration was significantly higher in the paddy soil than in the upland soil, regardless of fertilization regimes. As compared to the initial level, long-term rice cropping without any fertilization (CK) significantly enhanced SOC concentration, whereas corn cropping led to a slight decline. Manure amendments combined with inorganic NPK fertilizers (NPKM) significantly increased SOC content relative to the inorganic NPK application alone treatment (NPK) in both the upland and paddy fields. The paddy soil had significantly greater cumulative C released per gram of soil C (i.e., the biological stability of SOC) than the upland soil. Cumulative C released per gram of soil C was significantly higher in NPKM than in NPK in both the paddy and upland soils, whereas no significant difference was observed between the CK and NPK treatments. Acid hydrolysis could reveal the difference in C stability between the paddy and upland soils, but could not characterize the effect of fertilization. Conclusions: Rice cropping facilitates SOC accumulation relative to upland cropping, whereas the inherent SOC stability is lower under the former than the latter in the site. The lower SOC turnover in the paddy than in the upland is mainly due to anaerobic conditions. Organic amendments significantly enhance SOC, but reduce its stability in both the paddy and upland fields. The sensitivity of acid hydrolysis is relatively low in determining SOC stability. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Huang S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Sun Y.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yu X.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2015

Temperature and moisture effects on organic carbon (C) decomposition (i.e., CO2 and CH4 emissions) determine the feedback of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies to climate change. In the present study, soils from a long-term (initiated in 1981) fertilization experiment [unfertilized control, combined inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization (NPK), inorganic NPK plus organic manure (NPKM)] were incubated at 20 and 30 °C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Relative to aerobic conditions, anaerobic conditions significantly reduced CO2 and total C release, but led to CH4 production. On average, the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of CH4 production was 7.4 times greater than that of CO2 production. Under anaerobic conditions, the contribution rates of CH4 production to total C release significantly increased from an average of 2.4 % at 20 °C to 14.5 % at 30 °C, and to the global warming potential (GWP) from 18.1 to 59.9 %, respectively. Anaerobic conditions significantly reduced the Q10 of CO2 and total C release, but increased that of GWP. Manure-amended soils showed higher CO2 and CH4 production on a per gram soil C basis and lower Q10 of CO2 and total C production, but higher Q10 of CH4 production than those of the control and NPK soils. Therefore, our results suggest that there are significant interactive effects of temperature, moisture, and fertilization regimes on SOC decomposition in the paddy soil. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Sun Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yu X.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2013

Purpose: Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in croplands plays a critical role in climate change mitigation and food security, whereas the stability and saturation of the sequestered SOC have not been well understood yet, particularly in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of inorganic fertilization alone or combined with organic amendments on SOC stability in a double rice cropping system, and to characterize the saturation behavior of the total SOC and its fractions in the paddy soil. Materials and methods: Soils were collected from a long-term field experiment in subtropical China where different fertilization regimes have been carried out for 31 years. The total SOC pool was separated into four fractions, characteristic of different turnover rates through chemical fractionation. Annual organic carbon (C) inputs were also estimated by determining the C content in crop residues and organic amendments. Results and discussion: Relative to the initial level, long-term double rice cropping without any fertilizer application significantly increased SOC concentration, suggesting that double rice cropping facilitates the storage and accumulation of SOC. The partial substitution of inorganic fertilizers with organic amendments significantly increased total SOC concentration compared to the unfertilized control. Total SOC increased significantly with greater C inputs and did not show any saturation behavior. Increased SOC was primarily stored in the labile fraction with input from organic amendments. However, other less labile SOC fractions showed no further increase with greater C inputs exhibiting C saturation. Conclusions: While the paddy soil holds a high potential for SOC sequestration, stable C fractions saturate with increasing C inputs, and thus, additional C inputs mainly accumulate in labile soil C pools. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Huang S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Pan X.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Sun Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Weed Biology and Management | Year: 2013

The vegetation cover during the non-cropping season could have important implications for the maintenance and recovery of soil fertility, as well as for biodiversity conservation in croplands. In this study, five fertilization regimes (control: non-fertilization; N: inorganic N fertilization; P: inorganic P fertilization; NPK: balanced fertilization with inorganic N, P and K; NPKM: balanced NPK plus farmyard manure) were conducted from 1981 in a double-rice (Oryza sativaL.)-cropping system in subtropical China. The effects of long-term fertilization were investigated on the weed growth, diversity and community structure during the fallow period. The results showed that, relative to the control, both inorganic fertilization alone (N, P and NPK) and NPKM in the rice-growing season significantly increased the weed density and biomass during the fallow period in the paddy field. There was no significant difference in the weed species richness (the number of species) among the treatments. Compared with the control, fertilization tended to reduce the weed diversity (Shannon's H′) and evenness (Shannon's E), especially in the N treatment. Long-term fertilization resulted in a significant shift in weed community's composition during the fallow period. The weed community's structure was affected by soil nutrients in the order P > N > K. © 2012 Weed Science Society of Japan.

Wang X.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang X.,Linyi Normal University | Han C.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

The effects of long-term fertilization of acidic soils on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) communities and its ecological implications remain poorly understood. We chose an acidic upland soil site under long-term (27-year) fertilization to investigate ammonia oxidizer communities under four different regimes: mineral N fertilizer (N), mineral NPK fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and an unfertilized control (CK). Soil net nitrification rates were significantly higher in OM soils than in CK, N or NPK soils. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of amoA genes by DNA-based stable isotope probing revealed that AOA dominate in CK, N and NPK soils, while AOB dominate in OM soils. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analyses of amoA genes revealed that Group 1.1a-associated AOA (also referred to as Nitrosotalea) were the most dominant active AOA population (>92%), while Nitrosospira Cluster 3 and Cluster 9 were predominant among active AOB communities. The functional diversity of active ammonia oxidizers in acidic soils is affected by long-term fertilization practices, and the responses of active ammonia oxidizers to mineral fertilizer and organic manure are clearly different. Our results provide strong evidence that AOA are more highly adapted to growth at low pH and low substrate availability than AOB, and they suggest that the niche differentiation and metabolic diversity of ammonia oxidizers in acidic soils are more complex than previously thought. © 2015.

Liu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen X.,Teagasc | Griffiths B.S.,Teagasc | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2012

Responses of nematode assemblages and soil function (short-term decomposition) in restored and degraded soil following an experimental disturbance (copper, chloroform, heat or drying) were monitored for 65 days. We tested the hypotheses: restoration enhanced the measured soil parameters; stability to disturbance was higher in degraded soil due to induced tolerance; and whether changes of the nematode assemblage were related to soil function. Even after disturbance, greater nematode abundance (>150 vs >10 per 100g soil), nematode richness (D'>1.0 vs >0.4) and function (>1.0 vs >0.05mg CO 2g -1 week -1) were maintained in restored than in degraded soil, respectively. An increase in nematode enrichment index (from 60 to >75) following all disturbances was attributed to the relatively high abundance of tolerant fungivores. The greater stability of the nematode structure index in degraded soil following heat and drying (120% and 125% respectively of the control), than in restored soil (90% and 30% of control) was due to a higher proportion of tolerant omnivores and carnivores. Thus some higher trophic level nematodes, with high c-p values, were tolerant to disturbance. However, stability of function was greater for restored than degraded soil, with a reduction over time in the degraded soil regardless of disturbance type. The differences in the responses of nematodes and soil function to disturbance suggest that nematodes could provide complementary insights into soil stability. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Li D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li D.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | Liu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cheng Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2011

A field experiment was carried out to investigate the methane emission pattern in a double-rice cropping system under conventional and no tillage in southeast China. The treatments included conventional tillage cultivation in both early rice and late rice (T-T) and conventional tillage in early rice but no-till in late rice (T-NT). The maximum methane emission rate of T-T and T-NT was 21.71mgm-2h-1 and 24.70mgm-2h-1 in early rice, respectively; and 18.52mgm-2h-1 and 7.32mgm-2h-1 in late rice, respectively. The seasonal amount of methane emission from the T-T and T-NT was not significantly different in early rice, but significant different (P<0.05) in late rice, with the values 6.57gm-2 and 3.04gm-2, respectively. In comparison with early rice, the seasonal amount methane flux of late rice was reduced by 29% and 68% in the T-T and T-NT, respectively. The decrease of methane emission in the T-NT was attributed to lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and higher soil bulk density. In conclusion, no tillage practice conducted in rice cropping season will markedly decrease methane emission for the rice cropping system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Huang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu X.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | Huang Q.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

Appropriate fertilization practices play a critical role in enhancing crop yields, as well as in achieving sustainable increases in crop production through improving soil quality. In the present study, we examined the effects of long-term fertilization (started in 1986) on crop yield and its sustainability under a double corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system in an Ultisol of southern China. Results showed that although corn yields were higher in the fertilized treatments compared to the unfertilized control, inorganic fertilizer application alone (N and NPK) resulted in declining trends in both corn yields and fertilization effects (defined as the yield difference between the fertilized treatment and the control), especially in the N treatment. In contrast, significant increasing trends in both corn yields and fertilization effects were observed in the manure-applied treatments. Manure amendments significantly increased the contents of soil organic carbon and total N and the availability of soil P and K, while long-term inorganic fertilization alone accelerated soil acidification, especially in the N treatment. In addition, there was no significant correlation between the yield trend and climatic factors (weather trends) over the period of study. Thus, it is likely that the long-term sustainability of corn production under manure application is attributed mainly to the improved soil quality. Our results also suggest that manure amendments, particularly in combination with inorganic NPK, should be the recommended fertilization practice to enhance corn yields and improve soil quality in the Ultisol. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Jing Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen X.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Z.-X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang Q.-R.,Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317%, respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil.

Zhong W.,Nanjing Normal University | Gu T.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang W.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang B.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | And 4 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial functional diversity were investigated in a long-term (21-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included nine treatments: organic manure (OM), organic manure plus fertilizer NPK (OM + NPK), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), fertilizer N (N), fertilizer P (P), fertilizer K (K), and the control (CK, without fertilization). The original soil was extremely eroded, characterized by low pH and deficiencies of nutrients, particularly N and P. The application of OM and OM + NPK greatly increased crop yields, soil pH, organic C, total N, P and K, available N, P and K content. Crop yields, soil pH, organic C, total N and available N were also clearly increased by the application of mineral NPK fertilizer. The amounts of total PLFAs, bacterial, Gram-negative and actinobacterial PLFAs were highest in the OM + NPK treatment, followed by the OM treatment, whilst least in the N treatment. The amounts of Gram-positive and anaerobic PLFAs were highest in the OM treatment whilst least in the P treatment and the control, respectively. The amounts of aerobic and fungal PLFAs were highest in the NPK treatment whilst least in the N and P treatment, respectively. The average well color development (AWCD) was significantly increased by the application of OM and OM + NPK, and the functional diversity indices including Shannon index (H ′), Simpson index (D) and McIntosh index (U) were also significantly increased by the application of OM and OM + NPK. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PLFA profiles and C source utilization patterns were used to describe changes in microbial biomass and metabolic fingerprints from nine fertilizer treatments. The PLFA profiles from OM, OM + NPK, NP and NPK were significantly different from that of CK, N, P, K and NK, and C source utilization patterns from OM and OM + NPK were clearly different from organic manure deficient treatments (CK, N, P, K, NP, NK 6 and NPK). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that total N, available P and soil pH significantly affected PLFA profiles and microbial functional diversity. Our results could provide a better understanding of the importance of organic manure plus balanced fertilization with N, P and K in promoting the soil microbial biomass, activity and diversity and thus enhancing crop growth and production. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

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