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Zhou J.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Zhou J.,Jiangsu Yurun Meat Group Co. | Han Y.,Jiangsu Yurun Meat Group Co. | Zhuang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science | And 3 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

In this paper, extraction of sauced duck neck meat volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized. Three extraction temperatures (30, 45, 60 °C), three extraction times (15, 30, 45 min), and three different fiber coatings (divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) were assayed. There were 82 volatile compounds identified and quantified, which belonged to nine families of chemicals including alcohols, acids, esters, ketones, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, heterocycles, monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. The major volatile compounds of sauced duck neck came from spices addition, oxidation, Maillard reaction, etc. Almost all the compounds were extracted by the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber at 45 °C, and the optimal time of extraction in this case was 15 min, during which DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber reached equilibration. Among the fibers tested, DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber favored the extraction of a wide range of compounds with low and high boiling point. On the other hand, PDMS/DVB fiber absorbed more polar and high retention index (RI) aromatic compounds. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Yang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han Y.,Jiangsu Yurun Meat Group Co. | And 3 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2015

This study investigated the use of high pressure processing (HPP) for enhancing the functional properties of reduced-fat (20%) and reduced-salt (1%) sausages without the need for additives. The effects of different HPP treatments (100 to 400 MPa) at 10 °C for 2 min on cooking losses, color, textural properties, salt solubility of myofibrillar proteins, rheological properties and microstructure of pork sausage emulsions were compared with the Control (0.1 MPa). The results showed that HPP contributed to a decrease in cooking losses as well as altered color and enhanced textural properties, and also decreased the protein solubility of myosin and actin. Pressure increased G′, G″ and tan δ, and formed a more regular and filamentous microstructure, especially at 200 MPa. In addition, the sensory evaluation exhibited that there was no significant difference between the commercialized emulsion-type sausages and the 200 MPa pressure treated sausages with 20% fat and 1% salt. It was concluded that HPP significantly improved the functional properties of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages, and the optimum conditions was 200 MPa at 10 °C for 2 min. Industrial relevance For health reasons, there is a need to reduce fat and salt contents of processed meat products. Using HPP (especially 200 MPa), a meat emulsion-type product with low fat and salt was successfully produced, which retains its expected functional quality attributed of objective texture, color and rheological property, etc. Importantly this is achieved with a marked reduction in cooking loss when cooked thus providing the manufacturer with greater product yield. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Bai Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han Y.,Jiangsu Yurun Meat Group Co. | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2015

High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P2 peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. © 2014 .

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