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Hao D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hao D.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Chao M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Yangzhou University | Yu D.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are generally used to characterize the intrinsic action of photosystem II (PSII), which is interrelated with the photosynthetic capacity. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and associated traits is important for genetic improvement in soybean. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted to detect key single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with chlorophyll content (chl) and chlorophyll fluorescence using 1,536 SNPs in a soybean landraces panel. The analysis revealed significant correlations among chl and five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including maximum quantum yield of PSII primary photochemistry in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), light energy absorbed per reaction center (ABS/RC), quantum yield for electron transport (ETo/ABS), probability that a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA - (ETo/TRo), and performance index on absorption basis (PI ABS). Genome-wide association analysis using a mixed linear model detected 51 SNPs associated with chl and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Among these identified SNPs, 14 SNPs were co-associated with two or more different traits in this study, and 8 SNPs were co-associated with soybean yield and yield components in our previous study. These significant SNPs will help to better understand the genetic basis of photosynthesis-related physiological traits, and facilitate the pyramiding of favorable alleles for photosynthetic traits in soybean marker assisted selection schemes for high photosynthetic efficiency. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Yin Z.,Yangzhou University | Zhang Z.,Yangzhou University | Deng D.,Yangzhou University | Chao M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Rubisco activase (RCA) catalyzes the activation of Rubisco in vivo and plays a crucial role in regulating plant growth. In maize (Zea mays), only β-form RCA genes have been cloned and characterized. In this study, a genome-wide survey revealed the presence of an α-form RCA gene and a β-form RCA gene in the maize genome, herein referred to as ZmRCAα and ZmRCAβ, respectively. An analysis of genomic DNA and complementary DNA sequences suggested that alternative splicing of the ZmRCAβ precursor mRNA (premRNA) at its 3' untranslated region could produce two distinctive ZmRCAβ transcripts. Analyses by electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that ZmRCAα and ZmRCAβ encode larger and smaller polypeptides of approximately 46 and 43 kD, respectively. Transcriptional analyses demonstrated that the expression levels of both ZmRCAα and ZmRCAβ were higher in leaves and during grain filling and that expression followed a specific cyclic day/night pattern. In 123 maize inbred lines with extensive genetic diversity, the transcript abundance and protein expression levels of these two RCA genes were positively correlated with grain yield. Additionally, both genes demonstrated a similar correlation with grain yield compared with three C4 photosynthesis genes. Our data suggest that, in addition to the β-form RCA-encoding gene, the α-form RCA-encoding gene also contributes to the synthesis of RCA in maize and support the hypothesis that RCA genes may play an important role in determining maize productivity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Source

Chao M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Yangzhou University | Hao D.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Understanding the genetic basis of Rubisco activase (RCA) gene regulation and altering its expression levels to optimize Rubisco activation may provide an approach to enhance plant productivity. However, the genetic mechanisms and the effect of RCA expression on phenotype are still unknown in soybean. This work analysed the expression of RCA genes and demonstrated that two RCA isoforms presented different expression patterns. Compared with GmRCA, GmRCAβ was expressed at higher mRNA and protein levels. In addition, GmRCA and GmRCAβ were positively correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and seed yield, suggesting that changes in expression of RCA has a potential applicability in breeding for enhanced soybean productivity. To identify the genetic factors that cause expression level variation of GmRCAβ, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping was combined with allele mining in a natural population including 219 landraces. The eQTL mapping showed that a combination of both cis-and trans-acting eQTLs might control GmRCAβ expression. As promoters can affect both cis-and trans-acting eQTLs by altering cis-acting regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites, this work subsequently focused on the promoter region of GmRCAβ. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the GmRCAβ promoter were identified and shown to correlate with expression level diversity. These SNPs were classified into two groups, A and B. Further transient expression showed that GUS expression driven by the group A promoter was stronger than that by the group B promoter, suggesting that promoter sequence types could influence gene expression levels. These results would improve understanding how variation within promoters affects gene expression and, ultimately, phenotypic diversity in natural populations. © 2013 The Author. Source

Yin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Meng F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Rubisco activase (RCA) catalyzes the activation of Rubisco in vivo and plays a crucial role in photosynthesis. However, until now, little was known about the molecular genetics of RCA in soybean (Glycine max), one of the most important legume crops. Here, we cloned and characterized two genes encoding the longer α-isoform and the shorter β-isoform of soybean RCA (GmRCAα and GmRCAβ, respectively). The two corresponding cDNAs are divergent in both the translated and 3′ untranslated regions. Analysis of genomic DNA sequences suggested that the corresponding mRNAs are transcripts of two different genes and not the products of a single alternatively splicing pre-mRNA. Two additional possible α-form RCA-encoding genes, GmRCA03 and GmRCA14, and one additional β-form RCA-encoding gene, GmRCA11, were also isolated. To examine the function and modulation of RCA genes in soybean, we determined the expression levels of GmRCAα and GmRCAβ, Rubisco initial activity, photosynthetic rate, and seed yield in 184 soybean recombinant inbred lines. Correlation of gene expression levels with three other traits indicates that RCA genes could play an important role in regulating soybean photosynthetic capacity and seed yield. Expression quantitative trait loci mapping revealed four trans-expression quantitative trait loci for GmRCAα and GmRCAβ. These results could provide a new approach for the modulation of RCA genes to improve photosynthetic rate and plant growth in soybean and other plants. © 2009 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Yin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yin Z.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Meng F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2010

Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters can provide qualitative and quantitative information about photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts. JIP-test and modulated fluorescence (MF) parameters are commonly used chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with JIP-test parameters, MF parameters, and photosynthetic rate (P N), and to examine the relationships among them in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Pot and field experiments were performed to evaluate 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) for five JIP-test parameters (ABS/RC, TR o/ABS, ET o/TR o, RE o/ET o, and PI ABS), four MF parameters (Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, ΦPSII, and qP), and P N. Significant correlations were commonly observed among JIP-test parameters, MF parameters, and P N. QTL mapping analysis identified 13, 9, and 4 QTLs for JIP-test parameters, MF parameters, and P N, respectively, of which 13 were stable. Four major genomic regions were detected: LG A2 (19. 81 cM) for JIP-test parameters, LG C1 (94.31 and 97. 61 cM) for P N and MF parameters, LG M (100. 51 cM) for JIP-test and MF parameters, and LG O (30.61-49. 91 cM) for P N, JIP-test, and MF parameters. These results indicate that chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, especially ΦPSII and qP, could play an important role in regulating P N, and that JIP-test and MF parameters could be controlled by the same or different genes. The QTLs identified in this study will help in the understanding of the genetic basis of photosynthetic processes in plants. They will also contribute to the development of marker-assisted selection breeding programs for photosynthetic capacity in soybean. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

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