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Wang X.-J.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Wang X.-J.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Zhang J.-Y.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 6 more authors.
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2011

A System Dynamics (SD) approach, focusing on water demand forecasting, was applied and developed based on the analysis of dynamic interactions among physical elements (natural runoff, groundwater recharge), environmental (water quality, ecosystem preservation) and socio-economic (population growth, water consumption, policy and management) aspects of water management elements in a regional water resources system. Through the analysis of multi-feedbacks and nonlinear interactions among system elements, a complex SD model was developed and applied in Tuwei River in the middle reaches of the Yellow River using water demand theory. The practical verification of the model shows that the relative error is small; therefore the model is reasonable structured to mimic the actual situation. Furthermore, total water demand of the whole basin can be also forecasted under the future changes of population, economic and climate scenario, and then propose the sustainable strategy for water demand management to achieve the goal of sustainable development in the whole basin. Copyright © 2011 IAHS Press. Source


Xiao M.,Jiangsu University | Jin Q.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute | Chu L.,Jiangsu University
Paiguan Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering | Year: 2015

Water level control is a key technique to realize the united regulation of irrigation-drainage in a wheat field and plays an important role in improving the ecological environment of the field. Based on the water level control technology, the change of nitrogen in deep groundwater in winter wheat farmland was studied by using field experiments and laboratory analysis at different growth stages and water depths. The results show that NH4+-N concentration in groundwater in flooding treatment is less than that in non-flooding treatment at the same drainage intensity, suggesting flooding helps to reduce NH4+-N concentration in groundwater. Unfortunately, with the prolonging flooding time, the decreasing rate of NH4+-N concentration gets slow. Under the condition without flooding, the longer the groundwater control time is, the slower the drainage rate is. The groundwater was caused to have enough time to contact with the soil and crop roots, which is in favor of the decreasing NH4+-N concentration. Additionally, flooding can reduce NO3--N concentration as well. In the case without flooding, the NO3--N concentration increases slightly at reviving-tillering and jointing-booting stages under water level control, but the NO3--N concentration rises considerably at heading-flowering and milking stages. There is a danger of NO3--N leaching in the whole growth period of winter wheat. ©,2015, Editorial Department of Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering. All right reserved. Source


Jin Q.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute | Wu Y.B.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute | Ji J.Z.,Huaian Investigation and Design Institute of Water Conservancy | Chen L.H.,Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation Drainage and Agricultural Soil Water Environment in Southern China
Advances in Energy Science and Equipment Engineering - Proceedings of International Conference on Energy Equipment Science and Engineering, ICEESE 2015 | Year: 2015

A large quantity of landfill leachate with many kinds of toxic and harmful substances produced during the degradation process of solid waste in landfill can cause serious environmental pollution, so it is important to find out an available technology to solve this problem. The use of Effective Microorganisms (EM) technology for reducing organic pollutant of landfill leachate has often been suggested as a feasible method in landfills, but the activity of EM can be influenced by surroundings such as aerobic or anaerobic, temperature, pH and the addition of volume rate between EM and landfill leachate. Laboratory tests show that the efficiency of the treatment of landfill leachate by EM technology reaches the highest rate under the condition of aerobic, 25∼35°C, pH 7.0∼8.0 and 1/2000∼1/1000 volume ratio between EM and landfill leachate, the removal rate of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) of landfill leachate is about 60% after 10 days of the treatment. Under anaerobic conditions as control subjects, COD of landfill leachate with EM can not reduce, while the concentration of NH3-N increased because of the effect of denitrification. It must be noted that the COD of EM is over 20,000 mg/L, if the proportion of EM and leachate is too high, the COD of leachate may increase in opposition to what is expected, so the addition of volume rate between EM and landfill leachate should be tested to content with the various demands of the special purposes by a laboratory study before applying it in landfills. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source


Jin Q.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute | Xu S.,Water Resources Bureau of Nanjing City | Xia M.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute
Paiguan Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering | Year: 2015

The research status of the field of agricultural irrigation and drainage at home and abroad, and the features of current common irrigation and drainage device were analyzed. To meet the urgent needs of water-saving irrigation and controlled drainage equipment in China, the integration of irrigation and drainage equipment system was proposed. This system, which depended on the demand for water table of crops in different periods, made good use of rainfall and irrigation, accurately controlled water table of irrigation and drainage for paddy fields, and solved the problem that current irrigation and drainage equipment could not simultaneously achieve automatic control of irrigation and drainage. The results show that test area for paddy field integration of irrigation and drainage system increased by 150 mm use of rainfall, rainfall utilization ratio increased by 21%, irrigation rate decreased by 21% and rice yield increased by 4.3% per mu compared to the control area. The system could improve the fertilizer utilization ratio and decrease agricultural non-point source pollution. So it is convincible that the system can bring considerable economic, ecological benefits and wide applications. ©, 2015, Editorial Department of Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering. All right reserved. Source


Yan S.-F.,Hohai University | Yan S.-F.,Jiangsu Water Conservancy Research Institute | Yu S.-E.,Hohai University | Wu Y.-B.,Hohai University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

The coastline of China is approximately 18,000 km long. In most coastal cities, seawater intrusion is a serious threat to groundwater resources. Nine shallow monitoring wells were constructed to study the dynamics of shallow groundwater level and salinity in the coastal plain region of Jiangsu province, China. Results showed that precipitation, evaporation, and river stage affected the groundwater level in our study area. Positive correlations were observed among the groundwater level, precipitation, and river stage; then negative correlation existed between the groundwater level and evaporation. The influencing factors on the groundwater level were in the order precipitation > river stage > evaporation. Sufficient precipitation during the wet season diluted the groundwater salinity. After the dilution, between two continuous precipitation events, the groundwater salinity increased as the groundwater level decreased. During the dry season, the groundwater salinity rapidly increased and reached its peak in December. The groundwater salinity in December was 23 times higher than that in July. The groundwater level and salinity in this study were generally associated with the season. Climate factors led to fluctuation of groundwater levels and salinity during the wet season, and seawater intrusion increased the groundwater salinity during the dry season. © 2015 Shao-feng Yan et al. Source

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