Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites

Wuxi, China

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites

Wuxi, China

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Dai J.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Dai J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Dai J.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Li Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

Schistosomiasis japonica, transmitted by the intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis of the causative agent Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public-health concern in China, and control of this snail is one of the major approaches used in attempts to interrupt the transmission of this neglected tropical disease. Niclosamide is currently the only commercial molluscicide available for the control of O. hupensis snails in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide in China. O. hupensis snails derived from 17 sampling sites from eight schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China were used for the molluscicidal tests. Active adult snails (10 for each drug concentration), were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg/L of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25°C, and then the snail mortality was estimated and LC50 values were calculated. All field-derived O. hupensis snails were dead following immersion in 0.5 and 1 mg/L WPN for 24 h, whereas no death was observed after immersion in 0.008 mg/L WPN for 24 h. Immersion in 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032 and 0.016 mg/L WPN for 24 h resulted in 80%-100%, 63.33%-100%, 0%-85%, 0%-50%, 0%-15%, and 0%-5% snail mortalities, respectively. The 24 h WPN LC50 values for the O. hupensis snails derived from the 17 sampling sites in China ranged from 0.0743 to 0.2285 mg/L, and no significant difference was detected by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p = 0.2). The results indicate that there is no regional variation in the current susceptibility to niclosamide in O. hupensis populations in China. It is suggested that the current sensitivity of niclosamide against O. hupensis remains high and has not changed after more than two decades of repeated, extensive application for snail control in the main endemic areas of China. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Liang Y.-S.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk. © 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hua H.-Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Hua H.-Y.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Hua H.-Y.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 11 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Human Schistosoma haematobium infection that causes urinary schistosomiasis occurs in Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and China is only endemic for S. japonicum. In this report, we reported an imported case with S. haematobium infection returning from Angola to Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, where S. japonicum is not endemic. Findings. The case was misdiagnosed as ureteral calculus, invasive urothelial carcinoma and eosinophilic cystitis in several hospitals, and was finally diagnosed by means of serological assay followed by microscopic examination of the urine sediment. The patient was then treated with praziquantel, and a satisfactory outcome was obtained. Conclusions: As S. haematobium is not indigenous to China, most Chinese doctors and medical technicians are unfamiliar with this introduced parasitic disease, therefore, they need to increase the awareness of its existence when they encounter persons who have visited or resided in endemic areas, and the techniques for detection of the parasite, so as to reduce the misdiagnosis. In addition, health education should be given to those who will go to the endemic areas to improve their knowledge and awareness on prevention and control of schistosomiasis haematobia, thereby reducing the risk of exposure to the infested freshwater. © 2013 Hua et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dai J.-R.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Dai J.-R.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Dai J.-R.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Li Y.-Z.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 14 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2015

As the currently only available molluscicide, niclosamide has been widely used for snail control for over 2 decades in China. There is therefore a concern about the emergence of niclosamide-resistant snail populations following repeated, extensive use of the chemical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the likelihood of niclosamide resistance in Oncomelania hupensis in China. Active adult O. hupensis snails derived from 20 counties of 10 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China, of 10 snails in each drug concentration, were immersed in solutions of 1, 0·5, 0·25, 0·125, 0·063, 0·032, 0·016 and 0·008 mg L-1 of a 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25 °C, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated. Then, the 24-and 48-h WPN LC50 values were compared with those determined in the same sampling sites in 2002. The results indicated that the 24-and 48-h WPN LC50 values for O. hupensis were not significantly different from those determined in 2002 (P = 0·202 and 0·796, respectively). It is concluded that the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide has not changed after more than 2 decades of repeated, extensive application in the main endemic foci of China, and there is no evidence of resistance to niclosamide detected in O. hupensis. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Li H.-J.,Weifang Medical University | And 15 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Praziquantel is currently the only drug of choice for the treatment of human schistosomiases. However, it has been proved that Schistosoma japonicum subjected to drug pressure may develop resistance to praziquantel. To evaluate the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin against praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum, mice infected with a praziquantel-resistant isolate and a praziquantel- susceptible isolate of S. japonicum were treated with dihydroartemisinin at a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg given once on each of 35-36 post-infection days, while infected but untreated mice served as controls. All mice were sacrificed 50 days post-infection, and the worm burden reductions were estimated. Administration of dihydroartemisinin at a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg on each of 35-36 post-infection days reduced total worm burdens of 69.8 % and female worm burdens of 86 % in mice infected with the praziquantel-susceptible isolate, and total worm burdens of 66.1 % and female worm burdens of 85.1 % in mice infected with the praziquantel-resistant isolate (both P values > 0.05). It is concluded that the sensitivity of artemisinin derivative dihydroartemisinin does not reduce in praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wu W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wu W.,National Health and Family Planning Commission | Wu W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Feng A.,Huadong Sanatorium of Shanghai | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Among the three main schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium) known to infect humans, S. japonicum causes the most serious pathological lesions. In China, only schistosomiasis japonica is transmitted. From the 1950s, massive epidemiological investigations and active control measures for schistosomiasis japonica have been carried out. At the early stage of schistosomiasis control program, there were about 12 million schistosomiasis patients, and about 5 % of schistosomiasis patients belong to advanced patients, which was 600,000. After more than a half century of active schistosomiasis control work, the schistosomiasis situation has been reduced markedly. The nearest epidemiological investigation showed that, by the end of 2012, there were still 240,000 schistosomiasis patients with the descent rate of 98 % and 30,000 advanced patients with the descent rate of 95 %. This paper reviews the rich experiences of advanced schistosomiasis research and control in China, including that the epidemiology researches confirm there is a family aggregation of advanced schistosomiasis and advanced schistosomiasis patients have no significance to the schistosomiasis transmission in transmission-interrupted areas but still are an infection source in endemic areas; pathogenic mechanism researches verify that genetic factors and immunoregulation play important roles in the disease developing process; ultrasound image examinations are used not only in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis but also in the guidance of treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effects and, furthermore, in the risk predictions of portal hypertension and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; clinical practices demonstrate that praziquantel can be used in most of advanced schistosomiasis patients, and the therapy not only can interrupt the schistosomiasis transmission somewhat but also is favorable for liver fibrosis improvement; the ascetic fluid concentration afflux is used in the therapy for obstinate ascites, and endoscopic varices ligation is used in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and both have good effects; hundreds and thousands of severe splenomegaly advanced schistosomiasis patients received splenectomy, and the long-term survival rate is more than 90 %, most of them are basically cured from the disease and their labor force recovers, some dwarf patients begin growing and developing again, and some sterile women became fertile; the researches of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of liver fibrosis have made progress, such as Cordyceps sinensis showing some anti-fibrosis effect in the animal experiments and primary clinical trials; the animal experiments and epidemiological investigations indicate that schistosome infection is one of the carcinogenesis risk factors, especially for liver cancer. In conclusion, these experiences and lessons are plentiful and worth sharing with the peers of other endemic countries for reference. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,National Health and Family Planning Commission | Wang W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Dai J.-R.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Currently, China is moving towards the elimination of schistosomiasis japonica. In a previous review, the factors affecting the progress towards the elimination of transmission of schistosomiasis in China have been summarized. Nevertheless, some factors were neglected. Hereby, we describe four other factors which may threaten the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China. © 2014Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Liu Y.-X.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Liu Y.-X.,National Health and Family Planning Commission | Liu Y.-X.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Wu W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 11 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

Artemisinin (qinghaosu), extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. in 1972, and its three major derivatives-artemether, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin-were firstly identified as antimalarials and found active against all species of the malaria parasite. Since the early 1980s, artemisinin and its derivatives have been found efficacious against Schistosoma spp., notably larval parasites, and artemisinin derivatives have played a critical role in the prevention and treatment of human schistosomiasis in China. Currently, China is moving towards the progress of schistosomiasis elimination. However, the potential development of praziquantel resistance may pose a great threat to the progress of elimination of schistosomiasis japonica in China. Fortunately, these three major artemisinin derivatives also exhibit actions against adult parasites, and reduced sensitivity to artemether, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin has been detected in praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum. In this review, we describe the application of artemisinin derivatives in the prevention and treatment of schistosomiasis japonica in China, so as to provide tools for the global agenda of schistosomiasis elimination. In addition to antimalarial and antischistosomal actions, they also show activities against other parasites and multiple cancers. Artemisinin derivatives, as old drugs identified firstly as antimalarials, continue to create new stories.

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