Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control

Nanjing, China

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control

Nanjing, China

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Wang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhu B.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Zhang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

In this study, a 15N tracing incubation experiment and an in situ monitoring study were combined to investigate the effects of different N fertilizer regimes on the mechanisms of soil N dynamics from a long-term repeated N application experiment. The field study was initiated in 2003 under a wheat-maize rotation system in the subtropical rain-fed purple soil region of China. The experiment included six fertilization treatments applied on an equivalent N basis (280 kg N ha-1), except for the residue only treatment which received 112 kg N ha-1: (1) UC, unfertilized control; (2) NPK, mineral fertilizer NPK; (3) OM, pig manure; (4) OM-NPK, pig manure (40% of applied N) with mineral NPK (60% of applied N); (5) RSD, crop straw; (6) RSD-NPK, crop straw (40% of applied N) with mineral NPK (60% of applied N). The results showed that long-term repeated applications of mineral or organic N fertilizer significantly stimulated soil gross N mineralization rates, which was associated with enhanced soil C and N contents following the application of N fertilizer. The crop N offtake and yield were positively correlated with gross mineralization. Gross autotrophic nitrification rates were enhanced by approximately 2.5-fold in the NPK, OM, OM-NPK, and RSD-NPK treatments, and to a lesser extent by RSD application, compared to the UC. A significant positive relationship between gross nitrification rates and cumulative N loss via interflow and runoff indicated that the mechanisms responsible for increasing N loss following long-term applications of N fertilizer were governed by the nitrification dynamics. Organic fertilizers stimulated gross ammonium (NH4 +) immobilization rates and caused a strong competition with nitrifiers for NH4 +, thus preventing a build-up of nitrate (NO3 -). Overall, in this study, we found that partial or complete substitution of NPK fertilizers with organic fertilizers can reduce N losses and maintain high crop production, except for the treatment involving application of RSD alone. Therefore, based on the N transformation dynamics observed in this study, organic fertilizers in combination with mineral fertilizer applications (i.e. OM, OM-NPK, and RSD-NPK treatments) are recommended for crop production in the subtropical rain-fed purple soils in China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhi J.,Nanjing Normal University | Yu X.,Nanjing Normal University | Bao J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Jiang X.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Yang H.,Engineering Laboratory for Energy System Process Conversion & Emission Control Technology of Jiangsu Province
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2016

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Mn-doped TiO2 (Mn(x)-TiO2) were synthesized in a sol-gel method and characterized by BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Gasphase elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation and capture by the Mn-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied in the simulated flue gas in a fixed-bed reactor. The investigation of the influence of Mn loading, flue gas components (SO2, NO, O2, and H2O) showed that the Hg0 capture capability of Mn(x)-TiO2 was much higher than that of pure TiO2. The addition of Mn inhibits the grain growth of TiO2 and improves the porous structure parameters of Mn(x)-TiO2. Excellent Hg0 oxidation performance was observed with the catalyst with 10% of Mn loading ratio and 97% of Hg0 oxidation was achieved under the test condition (120 °C, N2/6%O2). The presence of O2 and NO had positive effect on the Hg0 removal efficiency, while mercury capture capacity was reduced in the presence of SO2 and H2O. XPS spectra results reveal that the mercury is mainly present in its oxidized form (HgO) in the spent catalyst and Mn4+ doped on the surface of TiO2 is partially converted into Mn3+ which indicates Mn and the lattice oxygen are involved in Hg0 oxidation reactions. © 2016 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea


Zhou A.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhou A.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Yu D.,Wuhan University of Science and Technology | Yang L.,Nanjing Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2016

A series of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized through an impregnation method and used for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3). Na2SO4 was added into the catalyst to simulate the combined effects of alkali metal and SO2 in the flue gas. Experimental results showed that Na2SO4 had strong and fluctuant influence on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO2, because the effect of Na2SO4 included pore occlusion and sulfation effect simultaneously. When Na2SO4 loading content increased from 0 to 1 wt.%, the SCR activities of Na2SO4-doped catalysts decreased greatly. With further increasing amount of Na2SO4, however, the catalytic activity increased gradually. XRD results showed that Na2SO4 doping could induce the crystallization of MnOx phases, which were also confirmed by TEM and SEM results. BET results showed that the surface areas decreased and a new bimodal mesoporous structure formed gradually with the increasing amount of Na2SO4. XPS results indicated that part of Ce4+ and Mn3+ were transferred to Ce3+ and Mn4+ due to the sulfation after Na2SO4 deposition on the surface of the catalysts. When the doped amounts of Na2SO4 increased, NH3-TPD results showed that the Lewis acid sites decreased and the Brønsted acid sites of Mn-Ce/TiO2 increased quickly, which could be considered as another reason for the observed changes in the catalytic activity. The decreased Mn and Ce atomic concentration, the changes of their oxidative states, and the variation in acidic properties on the surface of Na2SO4-doped catalysts could be the reasons for the fluctuant changes of the catalytic activity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xiao X.,Nanjing Normal University | Xiao X.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Sheng Z.,Nanjing Normal University | Sheng Z.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | And 4 more authors.
Catalysis Science and Technology | Year: 2016

MnOx-CeO2/graphene (MnOx-CeO2/GR) catalysts prepared by a hydrothermal method with different mass ratios of graphene (0-0.45 wt%) were investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. The as-prepared catalysts have been characterized systematically to elucidate their morphological structure and surface properties by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and FT-TR. It was found that the environmentally benign MnOx-CeO2/GR (0.3 wt%) catalyst exhibited excellent NH3-SCR activity and strong resistance against H2O and SO2, which is very competitive for application in controlling NOx emission from flue gas. On the basis of the catalyst characterization, the high specific surface areas, the uniform distribution of active sites, and the interaction of manganese and cerium oxide species played key roles in the excellent catalytic performance of MnOx-CeO2/GR and resulted in improved SO2 tolerance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Wang F.-H.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang F.-H.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Cheng C.-W.,Nanjing Normal University | Cheng C.-W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | And 6 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2015

A highly selective fluorescent sensor (L1) based on a novel rhodamine B derivative was designed, and its recognition mechanism for Hg2+ was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy in methanol-water solution. The results showed that L1 was highly selective for recognizing Hg2+, and that other metal ions did not interfere with this recognition. A good linear relationship was shown between the relative fluorescence intensity of L1 and the concentration of Hg2+ within the range of 4-80 μM, with a detection limit of 0.19 μM. Job's plot method indicated 1:1 L1-to-Hg2+ stoichiometry in the complex. The mechanism of L1 recognition for Hg2+can be explained by the crystal structure of L2, which was the product of L1 reacting with Hg2+. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yang Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Cai Z.,Nanjing Normal University | Cai Z.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2016

Oxygen concentration is considered to be the most important factor influencing nitrification and mineralization rates in agricultural soils. However, the sensitivities of nitrification and N mineralization in paddy soils to oxygen concentrations are not well known. We examined nitrification activities and N mineralization rates of six paddy soils with pH ranging from 5.23 to 7.83 and incubated at 25°C and 60% water-holding capacity in laboratory after ammonium was added at concentrations of 10, 30 and 50 mg N kg−1 of soil and the headspace gases were replaced with stock gases whose oxygen concentrations were 20%, 10% and 2%, respectively. The tested paddy soils had a very wide range of nitrification activities so that the nitrate ratio in inorganic N varied from > 95% after 1 day incubation to < 25% after 7 days of incubation. The nitrate ratio correlated with the soil pH. Nitrate content and its ratio, and mineralization rate were not suppressed when the oxygen concentration in the headspace decreased from 20% to 2%. Our results suggested that nitrifiers and microbial communities involved in N mineralization might have adapted to the environment with low oxygen concentration in paddy soils in which oxygen concentration is deficient during the flooding period. However, oxygen concentration would be even lower than 2% in paddy soils under the flooding conditions. Thus, the minimum oxygen concentration at which nitrification activities in paddy soils are suppressed needs to be explored further. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Zhang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Zhang J.,Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation | Muller C.,Justus Liebig University | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the key trace gases playing an important role in global climate change. Soils are the most important source of global N2O. A large number of studies have been conducted to quantify soil-based N2O emissions, including processes of N2O production, microbial mechanisms of N2O production, and the prediction of N2O emissions via various modeling approaches on various spatial scales. However, a considerable uncertainty still exists regarding the spatial and temporal variability of N2O emissions in natural and managed habitats. In this review, we summarize the nitrogen (N) pools related with N2O production and the methods quantifying the gross heterotrophic nitrification of organic N and its contribution to N2O emissions in soils, with the aim to derive a simplified conceptual approach for N2O emissions. We show that with current stable isotopes techniques such a quantification is possible and can propose more information to understand N2O emissions from a wide range of soil and ecosystems. The gross heterotrophic nitrification of organic N rate may be generally significant in acidic forest soils with high C/N ratio. However, the contribution of heterotrophic nitrification of organic N process to total N2O emissions seems to be dependent on soil pH, C/N ratio and land use. Therefore, we propose introducing N2O production via heterotrophic nitrification of organic N into the conceptual "hole-in-the-pipe" (HIP) model of N2O emission, originally developed by Firestone and Davidson (1989). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Deng H.,Nanjing Normal University | Deng H.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Deng H.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Jiang Y.B.,Nanjing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2015

A method based on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was used to evaluate the effects of copper (Cu2+) on soil microorganisms. Soil spiked with 50-400mgkg-1 of Cu2+ as CuCl2 was incubated for 24hours before being packed into the MFC anode chambers and assayed for dehydrogenase activity (DHA), substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic). Soil was amended with 5% (w/w) glucose to accelerate 'start-up' and improve power generation, followed by 150hours of operation. Anode biofilm and soil was extracted to recover total nucleic acids and the 16S rRNA gene was subjected to PCR-DGGE, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that increases in soil Cu2+ concentrations reduced voltage and postponed start-up. The quantity of generated electrons within 48hours was 32.5 coulomb (C) in the without-Cu control and decreased with increasing Cu2+ concentrations (11.7, 7.7, 2.0 and 1.3C under 50, 100, 200 and 400mgkg-1Cu2+, respectively). Cyclic voltammetry identified decreased soil electrochemical activity with increasing Cu2+ concentrations. The results indicate that Cu2+ reduced electrical signals by inhibiting the electrochemical activity, metabolic activity and biomass of microorganisms. The 16S sequences of recovered anodic bacteria were assigned to Firmicutes, including Bacillaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Clostridium, Bacillus and Sporolactobacillus. In general, the DGGE band intensity of anodic bacteria decreased with increasing Cu2+ concentrations, except for bands assigned to Firmicutes and Bacillus, which increased with increasing Cu2+ concentrations. We suggest that the short-term electrical signals generated from MFCs with contaminated soil can be used to assess the toxic effect of heavy metal pollutants on soil microorganisms. © 2014 British Society of Soil Science.


Wang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Liu Q.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhang J.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control | Cai Z.,Nanjing Normal University
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2015

Land-use and management practices can affect soil nitrification. However, nitrifying microorganisms responsible for specific nitrification process under different land-use soils remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the relative contribution of bacteria and fungi to specific soil nitrification in different land-use soils (coniferous forest, upland fields planted with corn and rice paddy) in humid subtropical region in China. 15N dilution technique in combination with selective biomass inhibitors and C2H2 inhibition method were used to estimate the relative contribution of bacteria and fungi to heterotrophic nitrification and autotrophic nitrification in the different land-use soils in humid subtropical region. The results showed that autotrophic nitrification was the predominant nitrification process in the two agricultural soils (upland and paddy), while the nitrate production was mainly from heterotrophic nitrification in the acid forest soil. In the upland soils, streptomycin reduced autotrophic nitrification by 94%, whereas cycloheximide had no effect on autotrophic nitrification, indicating that autotrophic nitrification was mainly driven by bacteria. However, the opposite was true in another agricultural soil (paddy), indicating that fungi contributed to the oxidation of NH4 + to NO3 −. In the acid forest soil, cycloheximide, but not streptomycin, inhibited heterotrophic nitrification, demonstrating that fungi controlled the heterotrophic nitrification. The conversion of forest to agricultural soils resulted in a shift from fungi-dominated heterotrophic nitrification to bacteria- or fungi-dominated autotrophic nitrification. Our results suggest that land-use and management practices, such as the application of N fertilizer and lime, the long-term waterflooding during rice growth, straw return after harvest, and cultivation could markedly influence the relative contribution of bacteria and fungi to specific soil nitrification processes. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.


Wang Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang Y.,Jiangsu Center For Collaborative Innovation In Geographical Information Resource Dev And Applied | Yang H.,Nanjing Normal University | Yang H.,Jiangsu Center For Collaborative Innovation In Geographical Information Resource Dev And Applied | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Natural inputs and anthropogenic influences on lakes and their catchments are reflected in the sediment record. In the present study, the extractable organic compounds from sediments in the Chaihe catchment of the Dianchi watershed were analyzed to characterize source inputs. Results show that the sediments are dominated by odd numbered n-alkanes (n-C16-n-C33), maximizing at n-C17, n-C29 and n-C31. Aliphatic hydrocarbon may be composed of terrestrial plants and bacteria. The values of δ13C27, δ13C29 and δ13C31 of n-alkanes exhibit a range from -33.27‰ to -25.46‰, from -35.76‰ to -28.47‰ and from -33.67‰ to -27.42‰, respectively and three records strongly covary with depth, falling within the range of C3 plants in the study area. An isotopic model revealed C3 plant contribution to sedimentary organic matter (OM) ranging from 40.75% to 97.22%. The values of ACL27-33, CPI27-33, OEP, Paq, Pr/Ph, (C27+C29)/2C31, (C21+C23+C25)/3C17 and nC26 -/nC27 + are consistent with the C3 plant predominance. A constant CRS model gave the accumulation rates ranging from 2.69 to 8.46mma-1 spanning 1885-2010. It was concluded that OM transport in the Chaihe catchment was influenced strongly by human activities resulting in enhanced eutrophication. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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