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Tang H.,Shenyang Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security | Zhou X.-B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu X.-L.,Shenyang Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

The unsaturated polyester resin containing 35%, 45%, and 55% of magnesium hydroxide were synthesized with 1, 2- propylene glycol, phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride and styrene as the main materials, and their combustion performance was investigated. Results showed that the ignites times (tig) of the samples with magnesium hydroxide were higher than samples without magnesium hydroxide. Compared to the samples without magnesium hydroxide, the peak heat release rate (HRRpeak) of the samples contained 35%, 45% and 55% of magnesium hydroxide decreased by 60.47%, 65.89% and 74.99%; total heat release during1200 (THR1200s) reduced by 64.38%, 77.62% and 79.34%; the average specific extinction area (SEAav) decreased by11.96%, 58.15% and 89.15%; the average mass loss rate (MLRav) decreased by 66.12%, 70.25% and 70.25%. The samples with 55% of magnesium hydroxide observed the best flame retardant and smoke suppression effects, and the increase of magnesium hydroxide concentration could significantly improve the flame retardant performance of the unsaturated polyester resin. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Shi W.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Sciences | Hu G.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived l-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) equivalents (T 3-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T3/L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 μg/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li J.,Nanjing University | Yu N.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Jin L.,University of Queensland | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1ng/L to 325ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. © 2014.


Hu X.,Nanjing University | Shi W.,Nanjing University | Zhang F.,Nanjing University | Cao F.,Nanjing University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

The thyroid hormone disrupting activities of drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River were examined using a reporter gene assay based on African green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cells. None of the eleven tested samples showed thyroid receptor (TR) agonist activity. Nine water samples exhibited TR antagonist activities with the equivalents referring to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) (TR antagonist activity equivalents, ATR-EQ 50s) ranging from 6.92 × 101 to 2.85 × 10 2 μg DNBP/L. The ATR-EQ50s and TR antagonist equivalent ranges (ATR-EQ30-80 ranges) for TR antagonist activities indicated that the water sample from site WX-8 posed the greatest health risks. The ATR-EQ80s of the water samples ranging from 1.56 × 10 3 to 6.14 × 103 μg DNBP/L were higher than the NOEC of DNBP. The results from instrumental analysis showed that DNBP might be responsible for the TR antagonist activities in these water samples. Water sources along Yangtze River had thyroid hormone disrupting potential. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yu N.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Yang J.,Nanjing University | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2015

We documented the distribution of seven perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in drinking water in Jiangsu Province, China. Compared to the 30% proportion of branched PFOS in technical PFOS, the levels of branched PFOS in drinking water increased to 31.8%-44.6% of total PFOS. Because of previous risk assessment without considering the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers, here we performed a new health risk assessment of PFOS for thyroid hormonal perturbation in drinking water with the contribution from individual PFOS isomers. The risk quotients (RQs) of individual PFOS isomers indicated that linear PFOS contributed most to the risk among all the target PFOS isomers (83.0%-90.2% of the total PFOS RQ), and that risk from 6m-PFOS (5.2%-11.9% of the total PFOS RQ) was higher than that from other branched PFOS isomers. We found that the risks associated with PFOS in drinking water would be overestimated by 10.0%-91.7% if contributions from individual PFOS isomers were not considered. The results revealed that the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers were important factors in health risk assessment of PFOS and should be considered in the future risk assessments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Hu X.,Nanjing University | Shi W.,Nanjing University | Cao F.,Nanjing University | Hu G.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The estrogenic activities of source water from Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Taihu Lake and groundwater in Yangtze River Delta in the dry and wet season were determined by use of reporter gene assays based on African green monkey kidney (CV-1) cell lines. Higher estrogenic activities were observed in the dry season, and the estrogenic potentials in water samples from Taihu Lake were greater than other river basins. None of the samples from groundwater showed estrogen receptor (ER) agonist activity. The 17β-Estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQs) of water samples in the dry season ranged from 9.41×10-1 to 1.20×101ngE2L-1. In the wet season, EEQs of all the water samples were below the detection limit as 9.00×10-1 ngE2L-1 except for one sample from Huaihe River. The highest contribution of E2 was detected in Yangtze River as 99% of estrogenic activity. Nonylphenol (NP, 100% detection rate) and octylphenol (OP, 100% detection rate) might also be responsible for the estrogenic activities in water sources. Potential health risk induced by the estrogenic chemicals in source water may be posed to the residents through water drinking. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hu M.,Nanjing University | Li J.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Cui Q.,China Bluestar Lehigh Engineering Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

Thirteen samples of seawater were collected from Yellow Sea and East China Sea near Qingdao, Lianyungang, and Xiamen, China. They were analyzed for halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). The compounds selected for detection were Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP). The total concentrations ranged from 91.87 to 1392. ng/L and the mean concentrations of these four chemicals were 134.44, 84.12, 109.28, and 96.70. ng/L, respectively. TCEP exhibited the highest concentrations, although concentrations of TCPP and TDCPP were also fairly high in Lianyungang and Xiamen. Generally, Lianyungang was the most heavily polluted district, with very high concentrations of TCEP at LYG-2 (550.54. ng/L) and LYG-4 (617.92. ng/L). The main sources of halogenated OPFRs were municipal and industrial effluents of wastewater treatment plants in the nearby economic and industrial zones. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Nanjing University and Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

The distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), one class of persistent organic pollutants, in groundwater, especially in confined aquifers remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 12 PFAAs through a water cycle from the Huai River Basin to the Yellow Sea, including confined aquifers, unconfined aquifers, rivers, and coastal waters. We found the ubiquity of PFAAs in all types of samples, including those from confined aquifers (2.7-6.8ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the major PFAAs in all samples, accounting for an average of 49.1% (0.8-84.8%) and 33.3% (6.3-92.2%) of total PFAAs, respectively. Comparing the concentration of PFOA with that of PFOS, we found a higher concentration of PFOA in rivers and a higher concentration of PFOS in confined aquifers. Short-chain perfluoropentanoic acid accounted for an average of 10.3% (1.9-24.6%) of total PFAAs in rivers and coastal waters. Branched isomers of both PFOA and PFOS were detected in most samples (36/42 and 39/42, respectively). One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in the profiles of PFAAs among the different types of water samples. Principal component analysis suggested that rainwater and recent uses of PFAAs could be the major sources of PFAAs in confined aquifers, while recent and current uses of PFAAs could be the major source of PFAAs in unconfined aquifers, rivers and coastal waters. The risk quotients of PFOA and PFOS in groundwater and rivers were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than unity, indicating no immediate risks via drinking water consumption.


PubMed | Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center and Nanjing University
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

An effective method based on iron ore tailing Fenton-like process was studied for removing an azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution. Five tailings were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XFS), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurement, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result of XFS showed that Fe, Si and Ca were the most abundant elements and some toxic heavy metals were also present in the studied tailings. The result of BET analysis indicated that the studied tailings had very low surface areas (0.64-5.68 m(2) g(-1)). The degradation efficiencies of AO7 were positively correlated with the content of iron oxide and cupric oxide, and not related with the BET surface area of the tailings. The co-existing metal elements, particularly Cu, might accelerate the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. The effects of other parameters on heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of AO7 by a converter slag iron tailing (tailing E) which contains highest iron oxide were also investigated. The tailing could be reused 10 times without significant decrease of the catalytic capacity. Very low amount of iron species and almost undetectable toxic elements were leached in the catalytic degradation of AO7 by the tailing E. The reaction products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a possible pathway of AO7 degradation was proposed. This study not only provides an effective method for removing azo dyes in polluted water by employing waste tailings as Fenton-like catalysts, but also uses waste tailings as the secondary resource.


PubMed | CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology and Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Steroids have been frequently detected in surface waters, and might pose adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, little information is available regarding the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in lake environments. In addition to pollution sources, the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in lake environments might be related to lake types (shallow or deep), lake hydrodynamics, and sorption-desorption processes in the water-sediment systems. In this study, the occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological risks of 36 steroids in a large shallow lake were evaluated by investigating surface water and sediment samples at 32 sites in Lake Taihu over two seasons. Twelve and 15 analytes were detected in aqueous and sedimentary phases, respectively, with total concentrations ranging from 0.86 to 116ng/L (water) and from 0.82 to 16.2ng/g (sediment, dry weight). Temporal variations of steroid concentrations in the water and sediments were statistically significant, with higher concentrations in winter. High concentrations of steroids were found in the seriously polluted bays rather than in the pelagic zone of the lake. Strong lake currents might mix pelagic waters, resulting in similar concentrations of steroids in the pelagic zone. Mass balance analysis showed that sediments in shallow lakes are in general an important sink for steroids. Steroids in the surface water and sediments of Lake Taihu might pose potential risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, our study indicated that the concentrations and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in the large shallow lake are influenced simultaneously by pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics.Steroids in the large shallow Lake Taihu showed clear temporal and spatial variations and lake sediments may be a potential sink of steroids.

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