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Tang H.,Shenyang Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security | Zhou X.-B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu X.-L.,Shenyang Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

The unsaturated polyester resin containing 35%, 45%, and 55% of magnesium hydroxide were synthesized with 1, 2- propylene glycol, phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride and styrene as the main materials, and their combustion performance was investigated. Results showed that the ignites times (tig) of the samples with magnesium hydroxide were higher than samples without magnesium hydroxide. Compared to the samples without magnesium hydroxide, the peak heat release rate (HRRpeak) of the samples contained 35%, 45% and 55% of magnesium hydroxide decreased by 60.47%, 65.89% and 74.99%; total heat release during1200 (THR1200s) reduced by 64.38%, 77.62% and 79.34%; the average specific extinction area (SEAav) decreased by11.96%, 58.15% and 89.15%; the average mass loss rate (MLRav) decreased by 66.12%, 70.25% and 70.25%. The samples with 55% of magnesium hydroxide observed the best flame retardant and smoke suppression effects, and the increase of magnesium hydroxide concentration could significantly improve the flame retardant performance of the unsaturated polyester resin. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yu N.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Yang J.,Nanjing University | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2015

We documented the distribution of seven perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in drinking water in Jiangsu Province, China. Compared to the 30% proportion of branched PFOS in technical PFOS, the levels of branched PFOS in drinking water increased to 31.8%-44.6% of total PFOS. Because of previous risk assessment without considering the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers, here we performed a new health risk assessment of PFOS for thyroid hormonal perturbation in drinking water with the contribution from individual PFOS isomers. The risk quotients (RQs) of individual PFOS isomers indicated that linear PFOS contributed most to the risk among all the target PFOS isomers (83.0%-90.2% of the total PFOS RQ), and that risk from 6m-PFOS (5.2%-11.9% of the total PFOS RQ) was higher than that from other branched PFOS isomers. We found that the risks associated with PFOS in drinking water would be overestimated by 10.0%-91.7% if contributions from individual PFOS isomers were not considered. The results revealed that the PFOS isomer profile and the toxicity of individual PFOS isomers were important factors in health risk assessment of PFOS and should be considered in the future risk assessments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xie R.,Hohai University | Pang Y.,Hohai University | Li Z.,China Yangtze Power Co. | Zhang N.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Hu F.,Hohai University
Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Yu N.,Nanjing University | Shi W.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Su G.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The spatial distribution of 10 perfluoroalkyl acids including linear and branched (six monotrifluoromethyl isomers) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in surface water was investigated in Huai River Basin and Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China. In the water samples from Huai River Basin, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 18 ng/L and 4.7 ng/L, respectively), while in samples from Taihu Lake, PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 56 ng/L, 19 ng/L, and 15 ng/L, respectively). Branched PFOS (Br-PFOS) isomers accounting for 48.1% to 62.5% of total PFOS were enriched in all samples from Taihu Lake, compared to technical electrochemical fluorination (ECF) PFOS (Br-PFOS ∼30.0%), while the similar phenomena were not found in samples from Huai River Basin (Br-PFOS 29.0-35.0%). Principal component analysis (PCA) on the percentages of the individual isomer showed that the first two components accounted for 78.4% and 15.3% of the overall observed data variance. Samples from Huai River Basin were grouped together with the ECF PFOS standard suggesting the profiles were similar, while samples from Taihu Lake were grouped by themselves, suggesting that isomer profiles in these samples were different from that of Huai River Basin. The obvious difference in isomer profiles probably results from the different environmental behaviors of PFOS isomers and/or unknown sources (PFOS or PFOS precursors). © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Hu M.,Nanjing University | Li J.,Nanjing University | Zhang B.,Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center | Cui Q.,China Bluestar Lehigh Engineering Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

Thirteen samples of seawater were collected from Yellow Sea and East China Sea near Qingdao, Lianyungang, and Xiamen, China. They were analyzed for halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). The compounds selected for detection were Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP). The total concentrations ranged from 91.87 to 1392. ng/L and the mean concentrations of these four chemicals were 134.44, 84.12, 109.28, and 96.70. ng/L, respectively. TCEP exhibited the highest concentrations, although concentrations of TCPP and TDCPP were also fairly high in Lianyungang and Xiamen. Generally, Lianyungang was the most heavily polluted district, with very high concentrations of TCEP at LYG-2 (550.54. ng/L) and LYG-4 (617.92. ng/L). The main sources of halogenated OPFRs were municipal and industrial effluents of wastewater treatment plants in the nearby economic and industrial zones. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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