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Ito J.,Kyoto University | Bao Z.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science | Ni J.,Japan Cooperative General Research Institute
Food Policy | Year: 2016

Previous studies have demonstrated that there are two important preconditions for encouraging land rental in agriculture: out-migration and the enhancement of security and transferability of land rights. Focusing on the latter, we scrutinize the impacts of institutions aimed at facilitating land use dynamism, particularly the Rural Shareholding Cooperatives (RSCs), which have been established recently at the local level in rural China. In general, we find that RSCs can pave the way for the extension of property rights to farmland and promote more efficient land use patterns. Using survey data collected from 300 village committees in rural Jiangsu province, we estimate the effectiveness of RSCs in encouraging land rental. Our analysis reveals that RSCs can serve as intermediate agents for reducing transaction costs associated with exchange of land use rights and, thereby, not only encourage land rental/consolidation activities but also enable the entry of non-farm household entities into the farm business. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xu Y.,Nanjing University | Song W.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science
2011 International Conference on Electric Technology and Civil Engineering, ICETCE 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Earthquakes frequently occur in China. As emphasized in all quakeproof laws, statues, regulations and criteria promulgated by the central government in recent years, large and medium cities shall reasonably plan the construction of earthquake emergency shelters. Although some cities have already set about the construction of earthquake emergency shelters, many large and medium cities ignore the planning and layout of shelters. There is always no relevant requirement of earthquake shelters in the urban planning system. As a result, there are quite few earthquake shelters in Chinese cities, and there exist obvious risks in the resistance against earthquakes. In the principle of human orientation, this thesis has put forward the planning principle and idea of urban earthquake shelters according to relevant national provisions and requirements, so as to construct ecological, safe and harmonious humanistic cities. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Ito J.,Kyoto University | Bao Z.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science | Su Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Food Policy | Year: 2012

This paper examines the treatment effects of the agricultural cooperative and publicly funded extension services on individual household economy, using data collected by the author from watermelon-producing farm households in rural Nanjing. The cooperative addressed in this study restricts the participation of small-scale farmers, implying that selection into the program must be taken into consideration for an accurate assessment of the treatment effect. The econometric analysis revealed that government extension services have a modest effect on farm income. In contrast, the treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is robust and substantially large, accounting for nearly 70% of the pre-matching difference. This suggests that the agricultural cooperative system is an important avenue for farmers to improve their economic status. The treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is highly heterogeneous; the economic benefits arising from the cooperative are significant only for small-scale farms. We can argue that a coexistence of smallholder exclusion and the treatment effect in favor of small-scale farms poses serious challenges to pro-poor agricultural growth in China. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Song W.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science | Wu Q.,Nanjing Normal University
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2010

The institutional environment in China has quite evidently changed during modern socio-economic transitions. Driven both by local government and by marketing force, urban social space was redistributed after the reform of urban land and real estate policies. Urban renewal makes for wide differential rent and therefore gentrification is occurring in China. This paper analyzes the background and institutional environment of gentrification in China, and further discusses the process, characteristics and evolutionary mechanisms in the case of Nanjing, through investigation of the attributes of 1 075 residential communities built during the 1998-2008 at a macro level, and interviewing the residents and analyzing questionnaires in 6 different and typical communities at a micro level. As a socio-spatial course of two-way interaction, gentrification is divided into 3 stages of incubation, occurrence and fast development, according to the time of landmark events and policy reform on the leasehold of land in Nanjing during socio-economic transition. In terms of the socio-spatial characteristics of gentrification in Nanjing, the gentrification process under the trajectory of urban renewal makes urban social space present a new circle-layer structure; the rise of quite a number of gated communities results in the fragmentation of social space and privatization of public space; the management mode of modern communities and the change of life style have aggravated the indifference of neighborhood relationship of gentrified communities. Based on the empirical evidence of this study, this paper indicates that gentrification is quite different between China and western countries with respect to spatio-temporal order, dominant forces, paths of realization and spatial expression, and it further reveals the dynamic mechanism of gentrification developing in China at the present stage. © Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Song W.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Social science | Song W.,Nanjing University | Xu D.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang L.,Nanjing University | Zhu X.,Nanjing University
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2011

Since Park and Burgess created human ecology in the 1920s, the school of urban ecology has established many urban inner spatial models, such as concentric zone model, sector model and multiple nuclei model, through a great deal of empirical research, . Studies on urban socio-spatial structure by means of factorial ecology constantly have been conducted in China since the 1980s. Due to data accessibility of the case city, population and space data of the studies above are almost the population census data or the housing census data after the start of the reform and opening up, and the study period is centralized to the recent 30 years. Up to now, there have been relatively few scholars who do the quantitative study on urban spatial structure in modern China. Source

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