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Wang S.,Nanjing University | Yu L.,Nanjing Medical University | Yang H.,Nanjing University | Li C.,Nanjing University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Synaptic loss induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we found that oridonin (Ori) rescued synaptic loss induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro and attenuated the alterations in dendritic structure and spine density observed in the hippocampus of AD mice. In addition, Ori increased the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and promoted mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomes of AD mice. Ori also activated the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus of AD mice. Furthermore, in the Morris water maze test, Ori reduced latency and searching distance and increased the number of platform crosses in AD mice. These data suggest that Ori might prevent synaptic loss and improve behavioral symptoms in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Zhao Q.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhao Q.,Jiangsu Stroke Research Collaborative Group | Zhao Q.,Jiangsu Province Stroke Center for Diagnosis and Therapy | Li X.,Jiangsu Stroke Research Collaborative Group | And 38 more authors.
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2016

The outcome of early intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is worse than that without thrombosis. How to increase the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis for AF-related ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated factors that influence the effect of intravenous thrombolysis in these patients. Our results showed that thrombolysis was independently associated with a favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and did not influence the mortality of AF-related ischemic stroke, although it increased the risk of hemorrhage within 24 h after treatment. Risk factors for a poor outcome at admission were: heart failure (P = 0.045); high systolic pressure (P = 0.039); high blood glucose (P = 0.030); and a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (P < 0.001). Moreover, high systolic pressure at admission (P = 0.007), high blood glucose (P = 0.027), and a high NIHSS score (P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for mortality at 3 months. Besides thrombolysis, a high NIHSS score (P = 0.006) and warfarin taken within 48 h before stroke onset (P = 0.032) were also independent risk factors for symptomatic hemorrhage within 24 h after treatment. Ischemic stroke patients with AF benefited from intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 h after stroke. © 2016 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer Science+Business Media Singapore


Chen Y.,Nanjing University | Han L.,Nanjing University | Li J.,Nanjing University | Li J.,Jiangsu University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Angiogenesisis a key restorative mechanism in response to ischemia, and pro-angiogenic therapy could be beneficial in stroke. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggest that human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) improves stroke outcome, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of current study was to verify roles of HUK in postischemic angiogenesis and identify relevant mediators. In rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we confirmed that HUK treatment could improve stroke outcome, indicated by reduced infarct size and improved neurological function. Notably, the18 F-FDG micro-PET scan indicated that HUK enhanced cerebral perfusion in rats after MCAO treatment. In addition, HUK promotespost-ischemic angiogenesis, with increased vessel density as well as up-regulated VEGF andapelin/APJ expression in HUK-treated MCAO mice. In endothelial cell cultures, induction of VEGF and apelin/APJ expression, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by HUK was further confirmed. These changes were abrogated by U0126, a selective ERK1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, F13A, a competitive antagonist of APJ receptor, significantly suppressed HUK-induced VEGF expression. Furthermore, angiogenic functions of HUK were inhibited in the presence of selective bradykinin B1 or B2 receptor antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that HUK treatment promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and cerebral perfusion via activation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors, which is potentially due to enhancement expression of VEGF and apelin/APJ in ERK1/2 dependent way. © 2015 Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Meng H.-L.,Nanjing University | Li X.-X.,Nanjing University | Chen Y.-T.,Nanjing University | Chen Y.-T.,Nanjing Medical University | And 13 more authors.
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Aims: This study explored sFasL expression in neurons and the potential role of neuronal sFasL in modulating the microglial phenotypes. Methods: In vivo, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in both FasL-mutant (gld) and wild-type (wt) mice. In vitro, primary cortical neuron or microglia or coculture from wt/gld mice was subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). sFasL level in the supernatant was evaluated by ELISA. Neuronal-conditioned medium (NCM) or exogenous sFasL was applied to primary microglia with or without FasL neutralizing antibody. Protein expression of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB pathways were determined by Western blot. The effect of microglia phenotype from wt/gld mice on the fate of ischemic neurons was further elucidated. Results: In vivo, compared with wild-type mice, M1 markers (CD16, CD32 and iNOS) were attenuated in gld mice after MCAO. In vitro, post-OGD neuron released more sFasL. Both post-OGD NCM and exogenous sFasL could trigger M1-microglial polarization. However, this M1 phenotype shift was partially blocked by utilization of FasL neutralizing antibody or gld NCM. Consistently, JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB signal pathways were both activated in microglia after exogenous sFasL treatment. Compared with wild-type mice, M1-conditioned medium prepared from gld mice protected neuron against OGD injury. Conclusions: Ischemic neurons release sFasL, which contributes to M1-microglial polarization. The underlying mechanisms may involve the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Cheng Q.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang Z.,Jiangsu Province Stroke Center for Diagnosis and Therapy | Zhang S.,Nanjing Medical University | And 16 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2015

Current treatments for ischemic stroke are limited, stem cell transplantation offers great potential as a therapeutic strategy. The present study was undertaken to determine whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could improve brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) through modulating peripheral immunoinflammation. The study showed that neurological deficit was ameliorated and brain edema, infarct volume was significantly decreased from 72 h to 1 week post-MCAO with hUC-MSCs treatment via tail vein injection within 30 mins after stroke; hUC-MSCs attenuated the levels of inflammatory factors including IL-1, TNF-α, IL-23, IL-17 and IL-10 in peripheral blood serum and ischemia hemisphere after stroke; hUC-MSCs significantly decreased the level of Th17 cells at 24 h and increased the level of Tregs at 72 h post-MCAO in peripheral immune system; the level of TGF-β in blood serum was enhanced by hUC-MSCs. In conclusion, our findings suggested that hUC-MSCs had neuroprotection in MCAO mice by TGF-β modulating peripheral immune and hUC-MSCs may be as a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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