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Fan H.,Nanjing University | Zhao G.,Nanjing University | Liu L.,Nanjing University | Liu F.,Nanjing University | And 6 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Immunology

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used experimentally for treating inflammatory disorders, partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. Although interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of the most important inflammatory mediators, growing evidence indicates that IL-1β signaling elicits the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs. However, it remains unclear how IL-1β signaling accomplishes this activity. Here, we focus on the therapeutic efficacy of IL-1β-primed MSCs in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, in addition to the underlining mechanisms. We first found that IL-1β-primed MSCs, without any observable phenotype change in vitro, significantly attenuated the development of DSS-induced murine colitis. Moreover, IL-1β-primed MSCs modulated the balance of immune cells in the spleen and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) through elevating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6 and IL-8 expression and influencing the polarization of peritoneal macrophages. Importantly, IL-1β-primed MSCs possessed an enhanced ability to migrate to the inflammatory site of the gut via upregulation of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression. In summary, IL-1β-primed MSCs have improved efficacy in treating DSS-induced colitis, which at least partly depends on their increased immunosuppressive capacities and enhanced migration ability. © 2012 CSI and USTC. All rights reserved. Source

Fan H.,Nanjing University | Liu F.,Nanjing University | Dong G.,Nanjing University | Ren D.,Nanjing University | And 6 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease

B-cell abnormality including excessive activation and lymphopenia is a central feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although activation threshold, auto-reaction and death of B cells can be affected by intrinsical and/or external signaling, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that co-activation of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and B-cell receptor (BCR) pathways is a core event for the survival/dead states of B cells in SLE. We found that the mortalities of CD19+CD27- and CD19+IgM+ B-cell subsets were increased in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients. The gene microarray analysis of CD19+ B cells from active SLE patients showed that the differentially expressed genes were closely correlated to TLR7, BCR, apoptosis, necroptosis and immune pathways. We also found that co-activation of TLR7 and BCR could trigger normal B cells to take on SLE-like B-cell characters including the elevated viability, activation and proliferation in the first 3 days and necroptosis in the later days. Moreover, the necroptotic B cells exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and hypoxia, along with the elevated expression of necroptosis-related genes, consistent with that in both SLE B-cell microarray and real-time PCR verification. Expectedly, pretreatment with the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) inhibitor Necrostatin-1, and not the apoptosis inhibitor zVAD, suppressed B-cell death. Importantly, B cells from additional SLE patients also significantly displayed high expression levels of necroptosis-related genes compared with those from healthy donors. These data indicate that co-activation of TLR7 and BCR pathways can promote B cells to hyperactivation and ultimately necroptosis. Our finding provides a new explanation on B-cell lymphopenia in active SLE patients. These data suggest that extrinsic factors may increase the intrinsical abnormality of B cells in SLE patients. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Gong W.,Nanjing University | Hu E.,Nanjing University | Dou H.,Nanjing University | Song Y.,Nanjing University | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Pharmacology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sepsis is a clinical condition characterized by overwhelming systemic inflammation with high mortality rate and high prevalence, but effective treatment is still lacking. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is an endogenous sensor, thought to regulate the amplification of immune response during sepsis. Modulators of TLR3 have an advantage in the treatment of sepsis. Here, we aimed to explore the mechanism of a monosubstituted 1,2-benzenediamine derivative FC-99 {N1-[(4-methoxy)methyl]-4- methyl-1,2-benzenediamine}on modulating TLR3 expression and its therapeutic potential on mouse model of sepsis.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cells were pretreated with FC-99 followed by poly(I:C) or IFN-α stimulation; TLR3 and other indicators were assayed. Female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham or caecal ligation puncture (CLP) surgery after i.p. injection of vehicle or FC-99; serum and tissues were collected for further experiments.KEY RESULTS FC-99 suppressed inflammatory response induced by poly(I:C) with no effect on cell viability or uptake of poly(I:C). FC-99 also inhibited TLR3 expression induced by not only poly(I:C) but also by exogenous IFN-α. This inhibition of FC-99 was related to the poly(I:C)-evoked IRF3/IFN-α/JAK/STAT1 signalling pathway. In CLP-induced model of sepsis, FC-99 administration decreased mice mortality and serum levels of inflammatory factors, attenuated multiple organ dysfunction and enhanced bacterial clearance. Accordingly, systemic and local expression of TLR3 was reduced by FC-99 in vivo.CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FC-99 reversed TLR3 expression and ameliorate CLP-induced sepsis in mice. Thus, FC-99 will be a potential therapeutic candidate for sepsis. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society. Source

Zhao X.,Nanjing University | Liu L.,Nanjing University | Liu D.,Nanjing University | Fan H.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

Problem: Progesterone (P4) plays a central role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. It also has profound effects on the regulation of immune responses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are thought to have the ability to modulate immunocyte activation, are present in human endometrium and deciduas and highly express progesterone receptor (PR). Especially, during pregnancy, both P4 and MSCs are present and regulatively changed at the fetal-maternal interface, but the effect of P4 on the MSCs remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of P4 on the immunomodulatory ability of MSCs and the underlying mechanisms. Method of study: Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from human umbilical cords. The effects of P4 on the cell morphology, phenotype, proliferation, apoptosis, and expression levels of cytokine and protein were examined. Results: Progesterone did not affect the phenotype, morphology, proliferation, and apoptosis of MSCs, but promoted the production of PGE2 and IL-6 in MSCs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of PGE2 and IL-6 was related to the activation of p38 and NF-κB. Conclusions: Progesterone enhances immunomodulatory function of MSCs through up-regulation of PGE2 and IL-6. The data suggest that P4-regulated MSCs may play a crucial role in modulating the local immune balance of fetal-maternal interface. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Wang Y.,Nanjing University | Fan H.,Nanjing University | Zhao G.,Nanjing Medical University | Liu D.,Nanjing University | And 5 more authors.
FEBS Journal

Pre-eclampsia is thought to be a systemic disease of maternal endothelial cell dysfunctions. miRNAs regulate various basic biological functions in cells, including stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells exist in almost all tissues and are the key cellular source for tissue repair and regeneration. Our aims are to investigate whether miRNAs regulate MSCs in fetal-maternal interfaces to influence the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. The differential expression of miRNAs in decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells of all patients with severe pre-eclampsia (n = 20) and normal groups (n = 20) was first screened by microarray analysis and validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The integrated bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-16 showed the highest number of connections in the miRNA GO network and the miRNA gene network. Moreover, over-expressed miR-16 inhibited the proliferation and migration of decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells and induced cell-cycle arrest by targeting cyclin E1. Interestingly, over-expression of miR-16 by decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduced the ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to form blood vessels and reduced the migration of trophoblast cells. Furthermore, decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cell-expressed endothelial growth factor VEGF-A was involved in migration of trophoblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as tube and network formation. Importantly, the levels of cyclin E1 and VEGF-A were negatively correlated with the level of miR-16 expression in decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the patients with severe pre-eclampsia. Together, these data suggest that the alteration of miR-16 expression in decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be involved in the development of pre-eclampsia. © 2012 FEBS. Source

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