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Wang H.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Tang X.-B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Tang X.-B.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | Liu Y.-P.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | And 4 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015

The effect of temperature on the output performance of four different types of betavoltaic microbatteries was investigated experimental and theoretical. Si and GaAs were selected as the energy conversion devices in four types of betavoltaic microbatteries, and 63Ni and 147Pm were used as beta sources. Current density-voltage curves were determined at a temperature range of 213.15-333.15 K. A simplified method was used to calculate the theoretical parameters of the betavoltaic microbatteries considering the energy loss of beta particles for self-absorption of radioactive source, the electron backscatter effect of different types of semiconductor materials, and the absorption of dead layer. Both the experimental and theoretical results show that the short-circuit current density increases slightly and the open-circuit voltage (VOC) decreases evidently with the increase in temperature. Different combinations of energy conversion devices and beta sources cause different effects of temperature on the microbatteries. In the approximately linear range, the VOC sensitivities caused by temperature for 63Ni-Si, 63Ni-GaAs, 147Pm-Si, and 147Pm-GaAs betavoltaic microbatteries were -2.57, -5.30, -2.53, and -4.90 mV/K respectively. Both theoretical and experimental energy conversion efficiency decreased evidently with the increase in temperature. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Tang X.-B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Tang X.-B.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | Hong L.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Hong L.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | And 6 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2015

A radioluminescent nuclear battery was fabricated and the performance was measured and calculated at temperature of 223.15-323.15K. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that Jsc minimally decreases with the increase in temperature, whereas Voc linearly decreases. Pmax rapidly decreases with temperature. The mechanism of temperature effect is discussed using the temperature dependency of semiconductor parameters. This study significantly guides the selection of batteries' power source under various temperature. The nuclear battery may also be used as a long-life temperature transducer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Liu Y.-P.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Liu Y.-P.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | Tang X.-B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Tang X.-B.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | And 8 more authors.
Nuclear Science and Techniques | Year: 2014

A concept of space radiation-voltaic batteries (SRVBs) based on various space radiation environments, including the earth radiation belt (ERB), solar proton event (SPE), and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is presented in this paper. The energy deposition, structural parameter optimization, and output performance of SRVBs are studied through the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 and theoretical formulas. Energy deposition in the three radiation environments monotonically decreases as the depth in both silicon film models and energy conversion units of the SRVBs increase. The recommended junction depths of SRVBs based on ERB, SPE, and GCR are 0.5, 3.0, and 0.5 μm, respectively. In the proposed design scheme, the maximum output power density of SRVBs in ERB, SPE, and GCR are 2.022×10-7, 1.113×10-3, and 3.844×10-17 W ·cm-2, respectively. Calculation results suggest that SRVBs based on ERB and SPE are high-potential candidates for space power sources. The results could help raise awareness on the use of space radiation particle energy and facilitate research on SRVBs. © 2014, Science Press. All rights reserved. Source


Liu Y.-P.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Liu Y.-P.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | Tang X.-B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Tang X.-B.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2015

Employing 63Ni and 147Pm with different thicknesses and apparent activity densities, we calculated the total efficiency (ηtotal) and conversion efficiency (η) limits of betavoltaics by MCNP5 and Schottky equation. The apparent activity density, emitted average energy, and η limit increase and then reach their saturation levels with increasing source thickness. The increment rate of η limit increasingly smaller as the bandgap increases. Wide bandgap semiconductors lead η to reach saturation and ηtotal to reach maximum more quickly than narrow ones. The limit of η for 147Pm is higher than that for 63Ni. Measurement results demonstrate that high apparent activity density can improve η as expected. This study can serve as a reference to evaluate the performance of betavoltaics. © 2015, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

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