Yan B.C.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases |
Yan B.C.,Jiangsu Electric Power Company |
Park J.H.,Kangwon National University |
Ahn J.H.,Kangwon National University |
And 10 more authors.
In this study, we investigated the effects of a normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) on delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient cerebral ischemia. In the HFD-fed gerbils, ischemia-induced hyperactivity was significantly increased and neuronal damage was represented more severely compared to the ND-fed gerbils. Ischemia-induced glial activation was accelerated in the HFD-fed gerbils. Cytokines including interleukin-2 and -4 were more sensitive in the hippocampal CA1 region of the HFD-fed gerbils after ischemia-reperfusion. Additionally, we found that decreased 4-HNE and SODs immunoreactivity and protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 region of the HFD-fed gerbils after ischemia-reperfusion. These results indicate that HFD may lead to the exacerbated effects on ischemia-induced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion. These effects of HFD may be associated with more accelerated activations of glial cells and imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or antioxidants after transient cerebral ischemia. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source
Tian F.,Yangzhou University |
Tian F.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases |
Tian F.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis |
Tian F.,Jiangsu Electric Power Company |
And 9 more authors.
A distinct subset of B cells, also known as regulatory B cells, can negatively regulate T cell immune responses, but the role of these cells in schistosomiasis has not been clarified. Soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP), which are two important antigen sources during Schistosoma japonicum infection, both can induce Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells and the corresponding cytokines. However, whether they can induce the production of regulatory B cells and the regulatory function of schistosome-induced regulatory B cells remains unclear. In our studies, we first analyzed the production of regulatory B cells stimulated by SEA or SWAP using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and observed these cells in mice immunized by SEA or SWAP. Then, B10 cells sorted by MicroBeads were co-cultured with CD4+ T cells, and the proportion of Treg cells were detected. At the same time, the IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 levels in the culture supernatant were measured. The results showed that B10 cells were preferentially induced by SEA in vitro, and B10 could also be induced in mice immunized by SEA. SEA-induced B10 cells promoted the expansion of regulatory T cells and induced IL-4 secretion, but inhibited IL-17 production. These findings reveal that the generation of B10 cells is determined by parasitic antigen, and suggest the function of B10 cell induced by SEA. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of the immune regulatory role in schistosomiasis and may help protect hosts from infection. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source