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Song Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Song Z.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Ma R.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma R.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | And 7 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Iron (Fe) is required for the iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis, which occurs in chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol that needs dozens of genes. However, molecular mechanisms of Fe metabolism in fruit trees are largely rare, especially towards fruit development and ripening. In this work, we characterized 'Xiahui8' peach development, and analyzed expression profiles of 44 Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes during different fruit development stages. The development of 'Xiahui8' peaches last for an average period of 130 days, followed by a rapid on-tree ripening during 7 days. Notably, the Fe accumulation in peach flesh was negatively correlated to fruit weight and volume, but positively correlated to flesh firmness. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were differentially expressed during distinct fruit development stages. A majority of plastid SUF and mitochondrial ISC machinery genes were gradually enhanced along with fruit growth, and began to decrease since commercial harvest phase. The highest expression level of all cytosolic CIA machinery genes were appeared in early fruitlet formation stage, and gradually reduced until fruit ripening. Moreover, foliar spraying of amino acid-Fe compound fertilizer significantly enhanced the total soluble solid (TSS) content in peaches, accompanied by strengthened flesh firmness, Fe concentration, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and aconitase (ACO) activities. Thirteen Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were responsive to fertilizer treatment, whose expression level were significantly induced, with the exception of HSCA2 that was reduced. Our findings provided molecular basis for Fe metabolism in peach fruit development, and revealed potential genes for further functional verification. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Song Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Song Z.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Guo S.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo S.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | And 9 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

Potassium (K+) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development, and fruit quality and yield. K+ uptake and transport is facilitated by KT/HAK/KUP transporters. However, studies to establish molecular mechanisms are rare in fruits, especially in peaches. In this study, we isolated 16 putative KT/HAK/KUP transporter genes in peach, and analyzed K+ homeostasis status in relation to KUP (K+ uptake) gene expression during whole fruit development life. The ‘Xiahui6’ peach development was divided into four distinct stages, S1–S4, and fruits were harvested on 110 days after full bloom (DAFB). qRT-PCR results showed that PpeKUP genes unevenly existed in various fruit parts and are differentially expressed during fruit development, ripening, and postharvest storage. The most highest-expressed gene was PpeKUP1 in mesocarp and PpeKUP2 in skin, especially during early stages, while PpeKUP3 was steadily expressed even until postharvest shelf-life. After harvest, the flesh firmness was nonsignificantly changed under cold treatment (4 °C), to avoid ripening. Notably, five PpeKUP genes were responsive to cold treatment as their expression were mainly induced in skin, except for PpeKUP3 that was decreased in both mesocarp and skin. Moreover, functional determination showed that PpeKUP1 and PpeKUP2 are important K+ transporters that mediate K+ uptake and accumulation, especially during fruit formation and fast growth stages. This study reveals a close relationship among peach growth, firmness maintenance, and K+ homeostasis, and directly provides potential candidate genes for further molecular studies. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Song Z.-Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Song Z.-Z.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Zhang B.-B.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang B.-B.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | And 6 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2016

Iron is required for the Fe-S cluster assembly which occurs in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and cytosol and here we characterized 44 Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes and investigated their expression profiles during different peach flowering stages. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis shows that the highest expression of most peach Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes appeared in the full bloom stage. Also, the highest Fe accumulation occurred in the full bloom stage followed by beginning bloom, petal fall, and bud swell stages. Activities of nitrite reductase (NiR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were closely correlated to the flower Fe content, whereas the aconitase (ACO) activity kept steady during the whole flowering process. Moreover, shading treatment significantly reduced Fe accumulation and NiR, SDH, and ACO activities of the full blooming flowers. Seventeen Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were down-regulated in response to a shading treatment. In particular, plastid sulfur mobilization genes were sensitive to the shading treatment. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Song Z.Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Song Z.Z.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Duan C.L.,Jiangsu Provincial Fishery Technical Extending Center | Guo S.L.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Zinc (Zn) is considered to be a major industrial pollutant because excessive amounts can impair plant growth. In this paper, we found that peach ‘Yoshihime’ seedlings are promising Zn tolerant plants. However, heavy Zn toxicity (2 mM) damaged plant performance by disrupting biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, proline production, and K+ nutrition. Notably, elevated external K+ supply (10 mM) alleviated peach seedlings from Zn toxicity, evidenced by enhanced photosynthesis, antioxidant defense systems, and plant K+ nutritional status. Moreover, the transcript levels of KUP (K+ uptake) genes involved in K+ acquisition, transport, and homeostasis were significantly upregulated following supply of sufficient K+ upon Zn toxicity. In general, K+ favorably contributes to improvements in internal K+ homeostasis, via the help of K+ transporters, further protecting plant photosynthesis and the antioxidative defense system. Our findings further benefit the study of the mechanisms underpinning heavy metal tolerance in woody plants. © FUNPEC-RP.

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