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Zhou Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Wu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gao Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Variegation in flower is a special trait in ornamental peach (Prunus persica L.). To investigate the mechanism of color variegation, we used a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to explore the proteomic profiles between variegated flower (VF) and red flower (RF) buds of the peach cultivar 'Sahong Tao'. More than 500 highly reproducible protein spots (P < 0.05) were detected and 72 protein spots showed a greater than two-fold difference in their values. We identified 70 proteins that may play roles in petal coloration. The mRNA levels of the corresponding genes were detected using quantitative RT-PCR. The results show that most of the proteins are involved in energy and metabolism, which provide energy and substrates. We found that LDOX, WD40, ACC, and PPO II are related to the pigment biosynthetic pathway. The activity of PPO enzyme was further validated and showed the higher with significant differences in RF compared with the VF ones. Moreover, the four UCH proteins are involved in protein fate and may be important in post-translational modifications in peach flowers. Our study is the first comparative proteomic analysis of floral variegation and will contribute to further investigations into the molecular mechanism of flower petal coloration in ornamental peach. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sun H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun H.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Shi T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

The abnormal pistils widely occur in Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) and seriously affect the fruit production. In this study, a CCoAOMT homologue, PmCCoAOMT, was cloned in Japanese apricot and the bioinformatics software analyzed the structural characteristics. The PmCCoAOMT protein was detected to be located in the cell cytoplasm by onion transient expression experiment. Analysis of the real-time PCR data showed that PmCCoAOMT gene expressed in the prophase development of pistil and the expression level in ‘Daqiandi’ was higher than ‘Longyan.’ The expression level in ‘Longyan’ was higher than ‘Daqiandi’ in the late period development of pistil, and the expression level of perfect flower (perfect pistil) was higher than imperfect flower (pistil deformity and no pistil). Compared with the control, the over-expression of PmCCoAOMT transgenic tobacco lines showed bigger flowers, darker petals. The lignin monomer composition in transgenic tobacco lines was also measured, and the results showed that transgenic tobacco lines had a higher S (Syringyl)/G (Guaiacyl) ratio (22.3 %) than control lines (11.8 %). Also, the perfect flower buds contained more S/G ratio (92.62 %) than imperfect flower buds (83.55 %) in ‘Daqiandi.’ Our results indicated that the PmCCoAOMT gene might have function in lignin accumulation, which contributed to pistil development in Japanese apricot. © 2016, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Song J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Song J.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Gao Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huo X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

Auxin has been widely implicated in various aspects of plant growth and development, including flower development. In order to further elucidate the role of auxin during flower development, especially on the pistil development process, auxin response factors (ARFs), an important component in auxin signalling pathway, were studied in the early flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). In this study, a comprehensive overview of the ARF gene family in Japanese apricot is presented, including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, the domain and nuclear localization analysis. Seventeen Japanese apricot genes that encode ARF proteins (PmARFs) have been identified based on the genome sequence of Japanese apricot. Comparison of the expression of some PmARF genes between perfect and imperfect flower buds in Japanese apricot suggests that PmARFs, especially the PmARF13 and PmARF17 gene may be required for pistil development and function in Japanese apricot. These results will be useful for future functional analyses of the ARF family genes in plants. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Diao W.-P.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Diao W.-P.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Snyder J.C.,University of Kentucky | Wang S.-B.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper. © 2016, Diao, Snyder, Wang, Liu, Pan, Guo and Wei.

Zhao D.,Yangzhou University | Zhao D.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement | Han C.,Yangzhou University | Zhou C.,Yangzhou University | Tao J.,Yangzhou University
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

High temperature stress has a significant impact on plant growth and development. Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a very important landscape plant used in greenbelt whose growth is restrained seriously by high summer temperature, but little is known about relevant solving measures. In order to find an effective measure, this paper studied the effect of black shading net with about 60% transmittance on alleviating the thermal damage of P. lactiflora under field conditions. The results showed that P. lactiflora physiological indices were higher in shaded plants than those in sun-exposured plants especially in the late stages of higher temperature, such as chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, Chl a+b, soluble sugar, soluble protein contents; whereas the exception to the trend was in Chl a/b and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Moreover, compared with sun exposure, shade increased P. lactiflora protective enzymes activities, made mesophyll cell ultrastructures more intact, the chloroplasts more round and the grana lamellaes arrange relatively neatly, which led to enhance its photosynthesis rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr). Additionally, the full-length cDNA of a heat shock protein gene (HSP70) containing 2195 bp nucleotides was obtained from P. lactiflora, and the expression analysis of PlHSP60, PlHSP70 and PlHSP90 in four developmental stages showed that shade caused PlHSP60 and PlHSP70 expression levels to rise especially in the late stages. These results indicated that shade alleviated the thermal damage of high temperature stress to P. lactiflora through scavenging reactive oxygen species, protecting cell structures, enhancing photosynthesis and the expression levels of HSP under high temperature stress, which might lay a theoretical foundation for P. lactiflora safe over summering and cultivated form in summer. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.

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