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Fu C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fu C.,Nanjing College of Chemical Technology | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Huang J.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 4 more authors.
Adsorption Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In an attempt to control iron(III) scaling in industrial cooling water systems, a maleic anhydride (M)/ammonium allylpolyethoxy sulphate (S) copolymer (MSn, n = 5, 9, 13, 20) was examined as an environmentally friendly dispersant. The synthesized MSn copolymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The ability of MSn to disperse iron(III) increased as the value of n increased from 5 to 13; however, the ethylene oxide chain in MS20 was so long that the molecule readily curled and hence its dispersion capability towards iron(III) decreased. It was also shown that MS13 exhibited the best dispersion activity towards iron(III), with ca. 28% light transmittance being achieved when the dosage of MS13 was 10 mg/l. The proposed dispersion suggests the formation of a core-shell superstructure, with interactions between various kinds of iron ions and the side-chain oxygen atoms of ethylene oxide being the principal means whereby iron(III) may be dispersed in cooling water systems. Source


Fu C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fu C.,Nanjing College of Chemical Technology | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Liu G.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Carboxylate-ended poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers, namely allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEC), were prepared by means of a carboxy methylation technique with the obvious advantage of energy conservation. APEC and acrylic acid (AA) were then used as monomers to obtain AA/APEC copolymers. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance were employed to characterize AA/APEC structure. Observations showed that AA/APEC was a much better inhibitor both for calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate compared to the commercial inhibitors, and it was also an effective inhibitor, even at elevated temperature, pH, Ca2+ and Fe2+ concentration or in the presence of biocides. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2012. Source


Fu C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fu C.,Nanjing College of Chemical Technology | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xue M.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 3 more authors.
Huagong Xuebao/CIESC Journal | Year: 2011

A novel phosphorus-free and nitrogen-free anti-scalant for calcium phosphate and Fe(III), maleic anhydride/allyl polyethylene glycol carboxylate (MCn, n is the degree of polymerization of polyethylene glycol, n=5,9,13), was synthesized from allyl polyethylene glycol monoether, chloracetic acid, maleic anhydride, and sodium hydroxide. The product was characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The performance of calcium phosphate inhibition and dispersancy towards Fe(III) was evaluated by the static scale-inhibiting method and light transmittance, respectively. SEM analysis showed a disordered calcium phosphate crystal in the presence of MCn. The studies indicated that both inhibition and dispersancy increased with increasing degree of polymerization of polyethylene glycol in the structure of MCn from 5 to 13. MC13 had superior ability to inhibit the precipitation of calcium phosphate, approximately 99% inhibition when the dosage was 6 mg · L-1, and had excellent dispersancy towards Fe(III), about 22% light transmittance when the dosage was 8 mg · L-1. Inhibition mechanism was proposed that the interactions between all kinds of metallic ions in systems and carboxyl groups on side chains and/or oxygen atoms of ethers were the fundamental impetus to restrain the formation of calcium phosphate scale and disperse Fe(III) in cooling water systems. © All Rights Reserved. Source


Fu C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fu C.,Nanjing College of Chemical Technology | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xie H.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

Novel double-hydrophilic block copolymers, maleic anhydride (MA)-allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEC) and maleic anhydride (MA)-ammonium allylpolyethoxy sulfate (APES), were specially designed and synthesized from allyloxy polyethoxy ether (APEO) to inhibit the precipitation of calcium phosphate and iron (III). Structures of APEO, APEC, MA-APEC, APES, and MA-APES were characterized by FT-IR. The study shows that both MA-APEC and MA-APES have significant ability to inhibit the precipitation of calcium phosphate at the dosage of 6 mg/L, approximately showing 99 and 90% inhibition, respectively. The data of the light transmittance of ferrous solutions show that, compared to MA-APES, MA-APEC has superior ability to stabilize iron (III) in solutions. The light transmittance of ferrous solutions is about 23% in the presence of MA-APEC when the dosage is 6 mg/L, whereas in the presence of MA-APES, it is about 31% at a dosage of 12 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the copolymers influence the morphology of calcium phosphate crystallites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates the excellent inhibition results from the formation of core-shell structure. Double-hydrophilic block copolymers of MA-APEC and MA-APES have also been proven to be effective inhibitors of calcium phosphate and iron (III) even at elevated solution temperature, pH, and Ca2+ and Fe2+ concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Fu C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Fu C.,Nanjing College of Chemical Technology | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Huang J.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 4 more authors.
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2011

A novel nonpolluting type of calcium phosphate and iron(III) antiscalant MCn was synthesized. The observation shows that MCn causes a disordered calcium phosphate. Furthermore, both calcium phosphate and iron(III) inhibition increase with increasing degree of polymerization of MCn from 5 to 13, and the dosage of MCn plays an important role on calcium phosphate and iron(III) inhibition. Inhibition mechanism is proposed the interactions between calcium or iron ions and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the fundamental impetus to restrain the formation of the scale in cooling water systems. © Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich. Source

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