Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science

Yangzhou, China

Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science

Yangzhou, China
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Gao Y.-S.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Jia X.-X.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Tang X.-J.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Fan Y.-F.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The Jiangxi Province of China has numerous native domestic chicken breeds, including some black skin breeds. The genetic diversity of Jiangxi native chickens is largely unknown, and specifically, the genetic contribution of the grey junglefowl to black skin chickens is not well understood. To address these questions, the complete D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and beta-carotene dioxygenase 2(BCDO2)gene was sequenced in a total of 209 chickens representing seven Jiangxi native breeds. Thirty-one polymorphic sites were identified across the complete mtDNA D-loop region sequence. Twenty-three haplotypes were observed in the seven breeds, which belonged to four distinct mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and E). Clade A and B were dominant in the chickens with a frequency of approximately 67.9%. There were five SNPs that defined two haplotypes, W and Y in BCDO2. Four breeds had one haplotype and three breeds had two. We conclude that Jiangxi native chicken breeds have relatively low genetic diversity and likely share four common maternal lineages from two different maternal ancestors of junglefowl. Furthermore, some Jiangxi chicken populations may have been mixed with chickens with exotic lineage. Further research should be established to protect these domestic chicken resources. © 2017 Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Zhu P.,Yangzhou University | Zhu P.,Lihua Livestock Company of Jiangsu Province | Xu X.,Lihua Livestock Company of Jiangsu Province | Qi Y.,Lihua Livestock Company of Jiangsu Province | And 2 more authors.
European Poultry Science | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis 0048 (BS0048) on the growth performance and digestive function of the intestinal tract in yellow broilers. A total of 980 male Xueshan chickens with similar weight (61.5 g ± 0.5 g) were randomly divided into control (basal diet) or treatment groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.1% (W/W) BS0048), with 7 replicates per group and 70 chickens per replicate. The chickens were raised for 80 days to observe the effects of BS0048 on their growth performance, viscosity and pH value of intestinal chyme, duodenal digestive enzyme activities and caecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) contents. The results showed that compared to the control group, average daily gain, duodenal digestive enzyme activities and caecal VFA contents in the treatment group were significantly increased (P<0.05), whereas viscosity of intestinal chyme was decreased (P<0.05) on day 40 and remarkably decreased (P< 0.01) on day 80. Feed conversion ratio and pH value of intestinal chyme had no significant changes. It is concluded that the use of BS0048 could not only reduce viscosity of intestinal chyme and enhance the duodenal digestive enzyme activities to enhance intestinal digestive function, but also could promote the production of caecal VFAs to maintain and improve intestinal health and thus enhance the growth performance of Xueshan chickens. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Zhu C.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Song W.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Tao Z.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | Liu H.,Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Pectoral muscle (PM) comprises an important component of overall meat mass in ducks. However, PM has shown arrested or even reduced growth during late embryonic development, and the molecular mechanisms underlying PM growth during the late embryonic to neonatal period in ducks have not been addressed. In this study, we characterized potential candidate genes and signaling pathways related to PM development using RNA sequencing of PM samples selected at embryonic days (E) 21 and 27 and 5 days post-hatch (dph) in two duck breeds (Gaoyou and Jinding ducks). A total of 393 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, which showed higher or lower expression levels at E27 compared with E21 and 5 dph, reflecting the pattern of PM growth rates. Among these, 43 DEGs were common to all three time points in both duck breeds. These DEGs may thus be involved in regulating this developmental process. Specifically, KEGG pathway analysis of the 393 DEGs showed that genes involved with different metabolism pathways were highly expressed, while genes involved with cell cycle pathways showed lower expression levels at E27. These DEGs may thus be involved in the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon of static or decreased breast muscle growth in duck breeds during the late embryonic period. These results increase the available genetic information for ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing the mechanisms underlying the process of PM development. © 2017 Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Egg number (EN), egg laying rate (LR) and age at first egg (AFE) are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

As a major economic trait in chickens, egg weight (EW) receives widespread interests in breeding, production and consumption. However, limited information is available for underlying genetic architecture of longitudinal trend in EW. Herein, we measured EWs at nine time points from onset of laying to 60 week of age, and conducted comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang chickens.Egg weights at all ages except the first egg weight (FEW) exhibited high SNP-based heritability estimates (0.47~0.60). Strong pair-wise genetic correlations (0.77~1.00) were found among all EWs. Nine separate univariate genome-wide screens suggested 73 signals showing significant associations with longitudinal EWs. After multivariate and conditional analyses, four variants on three chromosomes remained independent contributions. The minor alleles at two loci exerted consistent and positive substitution effects on EWs, and other two were negative. The four loci together accounted for 3.84 % of the phenotypic variance for FEW and 7.29~11.06 % for EWs from 32 to 60 week of age. We obtained five candidate genes, of which NCAPG harbors a non-synonymous SNP (rs14491030) causing a valine-to-alanine amino-acid substitution. Genome partitioning analysis indicated a strong linear correlation between the variance explained by each chromosome and its length, which provided evidence that EW follows a highly polygenic nature of inheritance.Identification of significant genetic causes that together implicate EWs at different ages will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis behind longitudinal EWs, and would be helpful to illuminate the future breeding direction on how to select desired egg size.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Eggshell is subject to quality loss with aging process of laying hens, and damaged eggshells result in economic losses of eggs. However, the genetic architecture underlying the dynamic eggshell quality remains elusive. Here, we measured eggshell quality traits, including eggshell weight (ESW), eggshell thickness (EST) and eggshell strength (ESS) at 11 time points from onset of laying to 72 weeks of age and conducted comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX).ESWs at all ages exhibited moderate SNP-based heritability estimates (0.30 ~ 0.46), while the estimates for EST (0.21 ~ 0.31) and ESS (0.20 ~ 0.27) were relatively low. Eleven independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait totally identified 1059, 1026 and 1356 significant associations with ESW, EST and ESS, respectively. Most significant loci were in a region spanning from 57.3 to 71.4 Mb of chromosome 1 (GGA1), which together account for 8.4 ~ 16.5% of the phenotypic variance for ESW from 32 to 72 weeks of age, 4.1 ~ 6.9% and 2.95 ~ 16.1% for EST and ESS from 40 to 72 weeks of age. According to linkage disequilibrium (LD) and conditional analysis, the significant SNPs in this region were in extremely strong linkage disequilibrium status. Ultimately, two missense SNPs in GGA1 and one in GGA4 were considered as promising loci on three independent genes including ITPR2, PIK3C2G, and NCAPG. The homozygotes of advantageously effective alleles on PIK3C2G and ITPR2 possessed the best eggshell quality and could partly counteract the negative effect of aging process. NCAPG had certain effect on eggshell quality for young hens.Identification of the promising region as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic eggshell quality and has the practical significance in breeding program for the improvement of eggshell quality, especially at the later part of laying cycle.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Chicken is recognized as an excellent model for studies of genetic mechanism of phenotypic and genomic evolution, with large effective population size and strong human-driven selection. In the present study, we performed Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) tests to identify significant core regions employing 600K SNP Chicken chip in an F2 population of 1,534 hens, which was derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang chicken. Results indicated that a total of 49,151 core regions with an average length of 9.79 Kb were identified, which occupied approximately 52.15% of genome across all autosomes, and 806 significant core regions attracted us mostly. Genes in candidate regions may experience positive selection and were considered to have possible influence on beneficial economic traits. A panel of genes including AASDHPPT, GDPD5, PAR3, SOX6, GPC1 and a signal pathway of AKT1 were detected with the most extreme P-values. Further enrichment analyses indicated that these genes were associated with immune function, sensory organ development and neurogenesis, and may have experienced positive selection in chicken. Moreover, some of core regions exactly overlapped with genes excavated in our previous GWAS, suggesting that these genes have undergone positive selection may affect egg production. Findings in our study could draw a comparatively integrate genome-wide map of selection signature in the chicken genome, and would be worthy for explicating the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic diversity in poultry breeding.


PubMed | Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Institute of Poultry science and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

The reproductive system of a female bird is responsible for egg production. The genes highly expressed in oviduct are potentially important. From RNA-seq analysis, C2H9orf152 (an orthologous gene of human C9orf152) was identified as highly expressed in chicken uterus. To infer its function, we obtained and characterized its complete cDNA sequence, determined its spatiotemporal expression, and probed its transcription factor(s) through pharmaceutical approach. Data showed that the complete cDNA sequence was 1468bp long with a 789bp of open reading frame. Compared to other tested tissues, this gene was highly expressed in the oviduct and liver tissues, especially uterus. Its expression in uterus was gradually increased during developmental and reproductive periods, which verified its involvement in the growth and maturity of reproductive system. In contrast, its expression was not significant different between active and quiescent uterus, suggesting the role of C2H9orf152 in reproduction is likely due to its long-term effect. Moreover, based on its 5-flanking sequence, Foxd3 and Hnf4a were predicted as transcription factors of C2H9orf152. Using berberine or retinoic acid (which can regulate the activities of Hnf4a and Foxd3, respectively), we demonstrated suppression of C2H9orf152 by the chemicals in chicken primary hepatocytes. As retinoic acid regulates calcium metabolism, and Hnf4a is a key nuclear factor to liver, these findings suggest that C2H9orf152 is involved in liver function and calcium metabolism of reproductive system. In conclusion, C2H9orf152 may have a long-term effect on chicken reproductive system by regulating calcium metabolism, suggesting this gene has an important implication in the improvement of egg production and eggshell quality.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry Science and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25-0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points.


PubMed | Jiangsu Institute of Poultry science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British poultry science | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to construct lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors targeting the duck MSTN gene and investigate whether these vectors can affect the development of duck primary cultured embryonic myoblasts. MSTN mRNA levels in the myoblasts were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assays and cell differentiation was assayed by photography. MSTN mRNA levels in PLL3.7-MSTN-shRNA1, PLL3.7-MSTN-shRNA2 and PLL3.7-MSTN-shRNA3 lentivirus-mediated shRNA groups were reduced by 61.6%, 76.9% and 79.1%, respectively, compared to control cells. Down-regulation of MSTN in duck embryonic myoblasts stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited differentiation, accompanied by a greater than twofold down-regulation of MyoD expression and up-regulation of Myf5 expression. These results revealed that silencing of MSTN changes the development of duck embryonic myoblasts by regulating the expression level of MyoD and Myf5 genes.

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