Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases


Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases

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Shretta R.,University of California at San Francisco | Wells T.N.C.,Medicines for Malaria Venture | Bell D.,The Global Fund | Djimde A.A.,University of Bamako | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2016

Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication. © 2016 Hemingway et al.

Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang L.,Wuxi Institute for Drug Control | Liang Y.-S.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Liang Y.-S.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Since praziquantel was developed in 1970s, it has replaced other antischistosomal drugs to become the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiases, due to high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration, and competitive cost. Praziquantel-based chemotherapy has been involved in the global control strategy of the disease and led to the control strategy shifting from disease control to morbidity control, which has greatly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infections. Given that the drug has been widely used for morbidity control in endemic areas for more than three decades, the emergence of resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel under drug selection pressure has been paid much attention. It is possible to induce resistance of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in mice under laboratorial conditions, and a reduced susceptibility to praziquantel in the field isolates of S. mansoni has been found in many foci. In addition, there are several schistosomiasis cases caused by Schistosoma haematobium infections in which repeated standard treatment fails to clear the infection. However, in the absence of exact mechanisms of action of praziquantel, the mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes remain unclear. The present review mainly demonstrates the evidence of drug resistance in the laboratory and field and the mechanism of praziquantel resistance and proposes some strategies for control of praziquantel resistance in schistosomes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gazzinelli A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Gazzinelli A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Doencas Tropicais Inct Dt | Correa-Oliveira R.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Doencas Tropicais Inct Dt | Yang G.-J.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. © 2012 Gazzinelli et al.

White N.J.,Mahidol University | Qiao L.G.,Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine | Qi G.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Luzzatto L.,Instituto Toscano Tumori
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose) be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg) would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated. © 2012 White et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wu W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Qian X.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Huang Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Hong Q.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31∈T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries where these diseases are endemic to improve the control or elimination of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

McCarthy J.S.,University of Queensland | Lustigman S.,Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute | Yang G.-J.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Barakat R.M.,Alexandria University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Diagnostic tools appropriate for undertaking interventions to control helminth infections are key to their success. Many diagnostic tests for helminth infection have unsatisfactory performance characteristics and are not well suited for use in the parasite control programmes that are being increasingly implemented. Although the application of modern laboratory research techniques to improve diagnostics for helminth infection has resulted in some technical advances, uptake has not been uniform. Frequently, pilot or proof of concept studies of promising diagnostic technologies have not been followed by much needed product development, and in many settings diagnosis continues to rely on insensitive and unsatisfactory parasitological or serodiagnostic techniques. In contrast, PCR-based xenomonitoring of arthropod vectors, and use of parasite recombinant proteins as reagents for serodiagnostic tests, have resulted in critical advances in the control of specific helminth parasites. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, the diagnostic technologies relevant to control of helminth infections, either available or in development, are reviewed. Critical gaps are identified and opportunities to improve needed technologies are discussed. © 2012 McCarthy et al.

Prichard R.K.,McGill University | Basanez M.-G.,Imperial College London | Boatin B.A.,McGill University | Boatin B.A.,University of Ghana | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost) and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations). To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis and food-borne trematodiases, will need to be integrated with monitoring, education, sanitation, access to health services, and where appropriate, vector control or reduction of the parasite reservoir in alternative hosts. Based on an analysis of current knowledge gaps and identification of priorities, a research and development agenda for intervention tools considered necessary for control and elimination of human helminthiases is presented, and the challenges to be confronted are discussed. © 2012 Prichard et al.

Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine | Year: 2012

To assess the diagnostic efficacy of the currently most widely used indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Schistosoma japonicum human infections. A comprehensive search was undertaken from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Proquest, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly settled. The funnel plot was used to assess the publication bias, Cochran's Q test was employed to measure the homogeneity between studies, a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy between the IHA and ELISA qualitatively by means of the Weighted Least Square method, the Ordinary Least Square method and the Robust regression method, and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was drawn to compare the accuracy quantitatively. Out of 785 publications, 19 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Literature quality assessment indicated that minor publication bias existed in studies pertaining IHA test, but no bias was found in literatures regarding ELISA test. The heterogeneity test showed a heterogeneity between studies was present (χ(2)=466.07 and 34.67, both P values<0.0001). The areas under the SROC curves of IHA were all higher than that of ELISA test using the three methods (Weighted Least Square method: 0.766 vs. 0.695, Ordinary Least Square method: 0.826 vs. 0.741, Robust regression: 0.815 vs. 0.715). The TPR* values for IHA and ELISA were 0.710, 0.759, 0.749, and 0.650, 0.686 and 0.666, respectively, and OR values were 5.997, 9.937, 8.893, and 3.432, 4.784 and 3.959, respectively. The DOR of IHA was 9.41 (95% CI: 4.88-18.18), and 4.78 (95% CI: 3.21-7.13) for ELISA. All above results revealed that the diagnostic performance of IHA is better than that of ELISA. However, taking into account their unsatisfactory diagnostic value in areas with low infection intensity, a search for a better diagnostic test that can be applied in field situations in China should be given high priority. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wu W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Huang Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in the world, and in China, schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in the south part of the country. In 1960s, before praziquantel was developed, there were about seven million patients. Praziquantel has a high efficacy against Schistosoma, few and transient side effects, simple administration and competitive cost, and is equally suited for both individual and large-scale treatment. Praziquantel has been widely used in the morbidity control, transmission control, and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica in China since 1980s. The schemes of praziquantel chemotherapy include the diagnostic selective chemotherapy, extensive chemotherapy, mass chemotherapy, stratified chemotherapy, phased chemotherapy, etc. Chemotherapy alone or combined with other control measure, such as Oncomelania snail control, health education, safety water supply, and so on, has achieved a great success, and there are only 0.33 million infected people now. This paper reviews the application of praziquantel in the schistosomiasis japonica control strategies in China so as to provide the rich experiences for reference of health workers of other countries where schistosomiasis is endemic. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Cheng Y.,Kangwon National University | Lu F.,Kangwon National University | Lu F.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Tsuboi T.,Ehime University | Han E.-T.,Kangwon National University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

Since the genome of Plasmodium vivax was sequenced, few proteins have been characterized as highly immunogenic and candidates for inclusion in a vivax malaria vaccine. The P. vivax 41 (Pv41) protein has a signal peptide, one glutamate-rich domain in its central region, and two sexual stage s48/45 domains, and is characterized as a gametocyte surface protein; however, this protein may be expressed principally on the merozoite surface of parasites. The previous study reported the transcription, blood-stage expression, and subcellular localization of Pv41 within the parasite. In this study, the recombinant Pv41 protein was expressed as a soluble form, of a molecular mass ~44. kDa, by a cell-free expression system and was specifically recognized by animal immune sera and vivax patient sera. Evaluation of the human humoral immune response to Pv41 indicated a high immunogenicity, with 62.5% sensitivity and 95% specificity, by protein array. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) using polyclonal anti-Pv41 antibodies showed that Pv41 was localized on the merozoite surface. The high immunogenicity of Pv41 indicates its potential as a vivax malaria vaccine candidate antigen, particularly in light of its location on the merozoite surface of the parasite. © 2013.

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