Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District

Yangzhou, China

Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District

Yangzhou, China
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Wang J.,Yangzhou University | Jiang J.,Yangzhou University | Li X.,Yangzhou University | Li A.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Unlike maternal inheritance of mitochondria in sexual reproduction, somatic hybrids follow no obvious pattern. The introgressed segment orf138 from the mitochondrial genome of radish (Raphanus sativus) to its counterpart in rapeseed (Brassica napus) demonstrates that this inheritance mode derives from the cytoplasm of both parents. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of five species from Brassica family allowed the prediction of other extraneous sources of the cybrids from the radish parent, and the determination of their mitochondrial rearrangement.Results: We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of Ogura-cms-cybrid (oguC) rapeseed. To date, this is the first time that a heterogeneously composed mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The 258,473 bp master circle constituted of 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA sequences, and 23 tRNA sequences. This mitotype noticeably holds two copies of atp9 and is devoid of cox2-2. Relative to nap mitochondrial genome, 40 point mutations were scattered in the 23 protein-coding genes. atp6 even has an abnormal start locus whereas tatC has an abnormal end locus. The rearrangement of the 22 syntenic regions that comprised 80.11% of the genome was influenced by short repeats. A pair of large repeats (9731 bp) was responsible for the multipartite structure. Nine unique regions were detected when compared with other published Brassica mitochondrial genome sequences. We also found six homologous chloroplast segments (Brassica napus).Conclusions: The mitochondrial genome of oguC is quite divergent from nap and pol, which are more similar with each other. We analyzed the unique regions of every genome of the Brassica family, and found that very few segments were specific for these six mitotypes, especially cam, jun, and ole, which have no specific segments at all. Therefore, we conclude that the most specific regions of oguC possibly came from radish. Compared with the chloroplast genome, six identical regions were found in the seven mitochondrial genomes, which show that the Brassica family has a stable chloroplast-derived source. © 2012 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jiang J.,Yangzhou University | Shao Y.,Yangzhou University | Li A.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | Lu C.,Yangzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Breeders have focused on yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) for its better quality compared with the black-seeded variety. Moreover, flavonoids have been associated with this kind of rapeseed. In this study, we applied lipid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) to compare flavonoids in developing seeds of natural black-seeded B. napus and yellow-seeded introgression lines selected from progenies of B. napus-Sinapis alba somatic hybrids. Aside from the most abundant phenolic compounds (sinapine and sinapic acid) and 1, 2-disinapoylglucose, 16 different flavonoids were identified and quantified, including (-)-epicatechin, five monocharged oligomers of (-)-epicatechin ([DP 2]-, [DP 3]-, [DP 4] [DP 2]-B2 and [DP 2]-B5), quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin-dihexoside, kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside, isorhamnetin-sinapoyl-trihexoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside. Most of the flavonoids accumulated with seed development, whereas some rapidly decreased during maturation. The content of these flavonoids were lower in the yellow-seeded materials than in the black seeds. In addition, variations of insoluble procyanidin oligomers and soluble phenolic acids were observed among both rapeseed varieties. Transcriptome changes of genes participating in the flavonoid pathway were discovered by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Consistent with flavonoid changes identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the expression of most genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was also downregulated. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Jiang J.,Yangzhou University | Shao Y.,Yangzhou University | Li A.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | Zhang Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Yellow-seeded Brassica napus is preferred by breeders for economic reasons, and seed coat is the most obvious comparable character between yellow and black rapeseed. RESULTS: Owing to an incomplete understanding of chemical components in yellow rapeseed coat, here we optimized a technique based on attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to screen differences in chemical compositions of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and four progeny lines with different yellow seed color derived from somatic hybrids between B. napus and S. alba. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of seed coat from B. napus and S. alba represented two specific peaks representing components of lignin in B. napus, which were absent in the progenies. Also, the intensity of peaks related to fiber were stronger in B. napus than S. alba and yellow seed lines, indicating the differences of fiber and lignin contents in yellow-seeded lines and parent lines. Differences in the lipid, protein and carbohydrate features were identified between B. napus and S. alba, some of which were specifically inherited in progenies of the somatic hybrids. CONCLUSION: FT-IR spectrometry and NMR provide a rapid, direct bioanalytical technique for exploring the changes in molecular chemistry within the canola seed coat and for selecting rapeseed materials with high quality, which can be further used for breeding or nutrition of human and animals. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Jiang J.,Yangzhou University | Wang J.,Yangzhou University | Li A.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | Zhang Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2012

Comparative proteomics of seed filling between yellow-seeded progeny from somatic hybrids Brassica napus-Sinapis alba and black-seeded parent (B. napus) were taken out using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The process indicated distinct differences in 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 weeks after fertilization (WAF) and mature seed. A total of 8 out of the 27 discriminate proteins were identified by mass spectrum analysis and MASCOT comparison, including protein kinase, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and dioxygenase. PCR primers contrived for the putative genes were applied for further identification of progenies and both parents, which indicated that spot A3-5 might be the novel protein of intergeneric hybrid, i. e., A5-2 derived from S. alba. Applying these specific primers, this study demonstrates that the new yellow-seeded germplasm is different from the existing yellow seed materials of rapeseed. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Wang J.,Yangzhou University | Gao Y.-N.,Yangzhou University | Kong Y.-Q.,Yangzhou University | Jiang J.-J.,Yangzhou University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2014

Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The floral organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened filament and deflated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther. © 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Li A.,Yangzhou University | Li A.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | Jiang J.,Yangzhou University | Zhang Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Polymerase chain reaction and genomic in situ hybridization techniques were conducted to demonstrate the genomic introgressions in somatic hybrid progenies between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. With minisatellite core sequence 33. 6 as primer, an S. alba-specific band (288 bp) was amplified in yellow seed progenies. No hybridization signals were found using the genomic DNA of S. alba as probe. In addition, degenerate primers were used for the detection of related genes based on the genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequencing results show that flavonoid pathway genes are highly conserved in A. thaliana, S. alba and B. napus, and present subtle differences because of genetic evolution. A specific band (1,672 bp) consistent with S. alba was characterized in the yellow seed lines. This study demonstrates that the new yellow seed germplasms, derived from backcrossed and self-crossed progenies of B. napus-S. alba hybrids, are stable and homozygous introgression lines with yellow seed color, and differ from existing yellow seed materials. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jiang W.,Yangzhou University | Xiao N.,Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District | Lu Y.,Yangzhou University | Dai Y.,Yangzhou University | And 3 more authors.
Zhiwu Shengli Xuebao/Plant Physiology Journal | Year: 2014

PIFs (phytochrome-interacting factors) are members of a small subset of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. By regulating the expression of downstream genes, PIFs play a vital role in many biological processes, such as repressing seed germination, promoting seedling skotomorphogenesis and promoting shade-avoidance. This review summarizes the research progress of biological function of PIFs, and provides help for the further study of PIFs.

PubMed | Yangzhou University and Jiangsu Institute of Agricultural Science in the Lixiahe District
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 mol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

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