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Wang Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Lu Z.-M.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Yu Y.-J.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. | And 4 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119±11 on day 1 to 48±16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61±9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Liu N.,Jiangnan University | Wang L.-J.,Jiangnan University | Wu L.-H.,Jiangnan University | And 6 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) formation in vinegar microbiota is crucial for the flavor quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, a traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the specific microorganisms responsible for acetoin formation in this centuries- long repeated batch fermentation have not yet been clearly identified. Here, the microbial distribution discrepancy in the diacetyl/acetoin metabolic pathway of vinegar microbiota was revealed at the species level by a combination of metagenomic sequencing and clone library analysis. The results showed that Acetobacter pasteurianus and 4 Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus brevis) might be functional producers of acetoin from 2-acetolactate in vinegar microbiota. Furthermore, A. pasteurianus G3-2, L. brevis 4-22, L. fermentum M10-3, and L. buchneri F2-5 were isolated from vinegar microbiota by a culture-dependent method. The acetoin concentrations in two cocultures (L. brevis 4-22 plus A. pasteurianus G3-2 and L. fermentum M10-3 plus A. pasteurianus G3-2) were obviously higher than those in monocultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while L. buchneri F2-5 did not produce more acetoin when coinoculated with A. pasteurianus G3-2. Last, the acetoin-producing function of vinegar microbiota was regulated in situ via augmentation with functional species in vinegar Pei. After 72 h of fermentation, augmentation with A. pasteurianus G3-2 plus L. brevis 4-22, L. fermentum M10-3, or L. buchneri F2-5 significantly increased the acetoin content in vinegar Pei compared with the control group. This study provides a perspective on elucidating and manipulating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavor formation in vinegar microbiota.

Liu J.,China Agricultural University | Gan J.,China Agricultural University | Yu Y.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. | Zhu S.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Decoction, the characteristic heat-treatment procedure in Zhenjiang Aromatic Vinegar (ZAV) processing, was performed in laboratory to investigate its effect on the antioxidative activity (AA) of ZAV. Owing to the laboratory-scale decoction, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ORAC value and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of ZAV increased by 63, 24 and 54% of that of undecocted vinegar, respectively. Enzymatic assay and HPLC determination proved that phenolic content decreased after the decoction, while melanoidins, also with antioxidative activity and recently found in ZAV, were generated. Regardless of the fluctuation in AA of melanoidins during decoction, increased melanoidin content was responsible for the increase in AA of ZAV. At the end of the decoction, melanoidins accounted for 57.1 and 44.1% of the total AA of ZAV, according to DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. Incorporation of phenolic compounds into melanoidins and degradation of melanoidins might both occur during decoction. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Shanghai Jinfeng Wine Co., Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. and Jiangnan University
Type: | Journal: Journal of bioscience and bioengineering | Year: 2017

As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol.

Yu Y.-J.,Jiangnan University | Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Yu N.-H.,Jiangnan University | Xu W.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this study was to determine the volatile composition of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, one of the four famous China-style cereal vinegars, by using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) and chemometrics. For this purpose, the HS-SPME sampling method for the volatile compounds of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was optimized by a second-order rotatable central composite experimental design (CCD). A HS extraction of the volatile compounds by incubation on a 65mm thickness polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre during 44.2min at 69.5°C with 1.9 g NaCl add gave the most effective and accurate extraction. By the optimized method, a total of 58 volatile compounds, including 9 alcohols, 13 acids, 16 esters, 5 aldehydes, 4 ketones and 8 heterocycle compounds, were identified from 13 aromatic vinegar samples manufactured in Zhenjiang region. By principal components analysis (PCA), the thirteen vinegar samples were classified into 3 groups, and 10 volatile compounds were chosen as characteristic compounds of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegars. © 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Xu W.,Jiangnan University | Yu N.-H.,Jiangnan University | Zhou T.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, which is produced from sticky rice through solid-state fermentation, is highly prized as one of the four famous China-style vinegars, owing to its unique flavour. In this study, a method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used for the first time to recover aroma compounds from Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. For this purpose, the optimal conditions for the extraction of aroma compounds by SFE were determined as follows: CO2 flow rate, 25Lh-1; extraction time, 2h; extraction pressure, 35MPa; and extraction temperature, 323K. Using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis, a total of 49 and 44 aroma compounds were identified in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar and its SFE extract, respectively. Acetic acid, ethyl acetate, furfural, phenethyl alcohol, tetramethyl-pyrazine, 3-hydroxybutanone and benzaldehyde were the main aroma compounds in the vinegar and its SFE extract. SFE is a fast and sensitive method to recovery aroma compounds from the vinegar. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

PubMed | Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. and Jiangnan University
Type: | Journal: Food microbiology | Year: 2016

Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation. First, we identified 3 organic acids, 7 amino acids, and 20 volatiles as dominant vinegar metabolites. Second, we revealed taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiota by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. A total of 86201 predicted protein-coding genes from 35 phyla (951 genera) were involved in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of Metabolism (42.3%), Genetic Information Processing (28.3%), and Environmental Information Processing (10.1%). Furthermore, a metabolic network for substrate breakdown and dominant flavour formation in vinegar microbiota was constructed, and microbial distribution discrepancy in different metabolic pathways was charted. This study helps elucidating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavour formation in vinegar microbiota.

Guan B.,Jiangsu University | Zhao J.,Jiangsu University | Jin H.,Jiangsu University | Lin H.,Jiangsu University | Lin H.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015

Solid state fermentation is a distinctive technology for vinegar-making. In general, the vinegar quality was evaluated by the contents of non-volatile acid and total acid. The relationships between the contents of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity from 56 different fermentation seed tanks and the contents of non-volatile acid and total acid from 56 different vaccination fermentation tanks were analyzed. The result showed that, when ADH activity values were controlled in 600~700 U/mL, the vinegar substrate would showa good performance in quality. What's more, the olfactory visualization sensor combined with back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was used to test the ADH activity and predict non-volatile acid and total acid. The result showed that the value of correlation coefficient of ADH activity, non-volatile acid and total acid were 0.7816, 0.8447 and 0.9463, respectively. Therefore, the olfactory visualization sensor combined with BP-ANN could be well used in the prediction of physicochemical index for vinegar substrate. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Guan B.,Jiangsu University | Zhao J.,Jiangsu University | Cai M.,Jiangsu University | Lin H.,Jiangsu University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

Aroma is a significant index to reflect the quality of vinegar. This paper intends to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of vinegar's substrate during solid-state fermentation. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as a colorimetric sensor array, was used comparatively to characterize the VOCs in the different stages of the acetic acid fermentation. It was found from GC-MS that the chemical components of ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate were remarkably changed during the solid-state fermentation. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor array technique was also used to characterize the VOCs of the solid-state fermentation. The color changes of the colorimetric sensor array before and after exposure to the vinegar's substrate samples were obtained by a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. The digital data (i.e., RGB components of the image) representing the color change profiles for the vinegar samples were analyzed. A principle components analysis (PCA) was employed to present the trends in the fermentation process through analyzing the signals obtained from the colorimetric sensor array. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model based on the PCA scores was used to distinguish vinegar's substrate samples per day during the whole fermentation process. The result show that around 60 percent of samples were correctly identified corresponding to their fermenting day; and 92.3 percent of samples were correctly identified within an error range of three days. Therefore, the colorimetric sensor array technique was considered to be an excellent method for VOCs measurement, based on its advantages of accuracy, no need for a pretreatment, fast, and low cost. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhu Y.,Jiangsu University | Zou X.,Jiangsu University | Shi J.,Jiangsu University | Zhao J.,Jiangsu University | Lin T.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry CO.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In this study, the homemade intelligent acquisition module of thermal resistance was applied to real-time monitor the temperature in the fermentation process of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, and the pH value was being monitored and tracked to analyze the different fermentation stages. Besides, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with Principal component analysis (PCA) and K-nearest neighbors (KNN)), was applied to realize the vinegar culture. The main results are as follows: the fermentation process may be divided into four stages in accordance with the change of temperature. According to the curve of pH, the fermentation process can be divided into three stages (namely, rising period, drop period and stable period). In the middle & later period of fermentation, the pH was maintained between 3.65 and 3.99. Analysis of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was applied to set identification model. When the fermentation process was divided into four stages, we obtained the optimal model and the highest recognition rate (90.04%). Conclusion, the tracking of the whole process provided the foundation for further research of the vinegar culture.

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