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Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Xu W.,Jiangnan University | Yu N.-H.,Jiangnan University | Zhou T.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, which is produced from sticky rice through solid-state fermentation, is highly prized as one of the four famous China-style vinegars, owing to its unique flavour. In this study, a method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used for the first time to recover aroma compounds from Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. For this purpose, the optimal conditions for the extraction of aroma compounds by SFE were determined as follows: CO2 flow rate, 25Lh-1; extraction time, 2h; extraction pressure, 35MPa; and extraction temperature, 323K. Using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis, a total of 49 and 44 aroma compounds were identified in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar and its SFE extract, respectively. Acetic acid, ethyl acetate, furfural, phenethyl alcohol, tetramethyl-pyrazine, 3-hydroxybutanone and benzaldehyde were the main aroma compounds in the vinegar and its SFE extract. SFE is a fast and sensitive method to recovery aroma compounds from the vinegar. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Zhu Y.,Jiangsu University | Zou X.,Jiangsu University | Shi J.,Jiangsu University | Zhao J.,Jiangsu University | Lin T.,Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In this study, the homemade intelligent acquisition module of thermal resistance was applied to real-time monitor the temperature in the fermentation process of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, and the pH value was being monitored and tracked to analyze the different fermentation stages. Besides, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with Principal component analysis (PCA) and K-nearest neighbors (KNN)), was applied to realize the vinegar culture. The main results are as follows: the fermentation process may be divided into four stages in accordance with the change of temperature. According to the curve of pH, the fermentation process can be divided into three stages (namely, rising period, drop period and stable period). In the middle & later period of fermentation, the pH was maintained between 3.65 and 3.99. Analysis of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was applied to set identification model. When the fermentation process was divided into four stages, we obtained the optimal model and the highest recognition rate (90.04%). Conclusion, the tracking of the whole process provided the foundation for further research of the vinegar culture.

Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Industry Co. and Zhenjiang Hengfeng Vinegar Co. | Date: 2008-06-03

Soy sauce; vinegar; condiments, namely, chili oil.

Yu Y.-J.,Jiangnan University | Lu Z.-M.,Jiangnan University | Yu N.-H.,Jiangnan University | Xu W.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this study was to determine the volatile composition of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, one of the four famous China-style cereal vinegars, by using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) and chemometrics. For this purpose, the HS-SPME sampling method for the volatile compounds of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was optimized by a second-order rotatable central composite experimental design (CCD). A HS extraction of the volatile compounds by incubation on a 65mm thickness polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre during 44.2min at 69.5°C with 1.9 g NaCl add gave the most effective and accurate extraction. By the optimized method, a total of 58 volatile compounds, including 9 alcohols, 13 acids, 16 esters, 5 aldehydes, 4 ketones and 8 heterocycle compounds, were identified from 13 aromatic vinegar samples manufactured in Zhenjiang region. By principal components analysis (PCA), the thirteen vinegar samples were classified into 3 groups, and 10 volatile compounds were chosen as characteristic compounds of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegars. © 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Guan B.,Jiangsu University | Zhao J.,Jiangsu University | Cai M.,Jiangsu University | Lin H.,Jiangsu University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

Aroma is a significant index to reflect the quality of vinegar. This paper intends to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of vinegar's substrate during solid-state fermentation. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as a colorimetric sensor array, was used comparatively to characterize the VOCs in the different stages of the acetic acid fermentation. It was found from GC-MS that the chemical components of ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate were remarkably changed during the solid-state fermentation. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor array technique was also used to characterize the VOCs of the solid-state fermentation. The color changes of the colorimetric sensor array before and after exposure to the vinegar's substrate samples were obtained by a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. The digital data (i.e., RGB components of the image) representing the color change profiles for the vinegar samples were analyzed. A principle components analysis (PCA) was employed to present the trends in the fermentation process through analyzing the signals obtained from the colorimetric sensor array. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model based on the PCA scores was used to distinguish vinegar's substrate samples per day during the whole fermentation process. The result show that around 60 percent of samples were correctly identified corresponding to their fermenting day; and 92.3 percent of samples were correctly identified within an error range of three days. Therefore, the colorimetric sensor array technique was considered to be an excellent method for VOCs measurement, based on its advantages of accuracy, no need for a pretreatment, fast, and low cost. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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