Zhang H.,Yangzhou University |
Zhang H.,Jiangsu Engineering Technology Center for Hybrid Japonica Rice |
Zhu C.,Yangzhou University |
Zhu C.,Jiangsu Engineering Technology Center for Hybrid Japonica Rice |
And 15 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013
In different ecological regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, representative cultivars which were widely planted in the local areas were used as the materials by setting the high-yield demonstration field and special plot comparison test of bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting, with conventional blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting for CK. The yield and its structure, various indicators of population growth, and development dynamic under two kinds of mechanical-transplanting methods were compared systematically, in order to study the advantages of yield formation and physiological and ecological characteristics of bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting rice. The results showed that, comparing with blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting, bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting stopped growing in the first week after transplanting. The averaged daily increment of the height of a seedling, leaf area, dry matter, and root traits of bowl seeding mechanical-transplanting in the second week after transplanting were all significantly better than the CK from beginning to end. The procedure of establishment and sprouting of bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting rice came earlier, of which the maximum number of stems and tillers were less and the dynamic change of stems and tills presented the characteristics of rising steadily and dropping slowly, as well as the ratio of productive tillers to total tillers being 9.3% higher than that of CK. The leaf area of bowl seeding mechanical-transplanting rice degraded more slowly after heading, of which the effective leaf area index and the efficient leaf area index were 2.0%, 2.5% higher respectively. In addition, the photosynthetic potential and net assimilation rate were relatively higher than that of CK. The growth rate of population and the amount of accumulation of bowl seeding mechanical-transplanting rice were both significantly higher than that of blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting rice from heading to maturity stage. The bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting rice still not only kept the root activity rather higher in the late period of rice growth, but also the lodging index of basal internodes was slightly lower so its lodging resistant capability was stronger, compared with the blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting rice. The comparison test from 2011 to 2012 under different ecological regions show that bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting rice had an approximately 6.0 to 12.6 percent higher yield than blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting rice, possessing a significant advantage of increasing yield. The average percentage of increased output at all the experimental sites was significantly improved by 9.0%. The main advantage of yield formation for it was large panicles with more grains: There exists no significant difference among the two mechanical-transplanting methods in terms of filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight. While the bowl seedling mechanical-transplanting rice had slightly lower number of panicle, it had more spikelets per panicle. Consequently, due to the above factors, they commonly promoted increased yield.
Zhang H.,Yangzhou University |
Zhao P.,Jiangsu Engineering Technology Center for Hybrid Japonica Rice |
Sun J.,Jiangsu Engineering Technology Center for Hybrid Japonica Rice |
Wu G.,Yangzhou University |
And 6 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012
By studying the differences of rice yield and its components, development of culm and tiller number, development of leaf area and its composition, photosynthetic potential, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate in super high yield population and high yield population, the population characteristics of super high yield formation of mechanical transplanted japonica hybrid rice were illustrated as follows: 1) The enough number of total spikelets in the population (more than 50000 × 10 4/hm 2) was resulted from enough panicle number and large panicle size, meanwhile the seed setting and the 1000-grain weight should be normal (the seed setting was above 85%; the 1000-grain weight was about 27 g). 2) The percentage of productive tiller (more than 75%) and the ratio of effective and high effective leaf area (The ratio of effective leaf area was about 95% and the ratio of high effective leaf area was more than 75% at heading stage) were increased on the basis of proper development of culm and tiller number (The expected number of panicle was achieved at critical leaf-age for productive tillers, and the max number of stems and tillers was appropriate, about 1.3 times as much as expected number of panicle ) and the leaf area index (The LAI was 7.8-8.0 in booting stage and then decreased smoothly after heading. At maturity, the LAI remained 3.0) in order to achieve the target productivity at different growth stages. (3) The dry matter weight at maturity stage (more than 20400 kg/hm 2) was increased with focus on increasing the dry matter production and accumulation from jointing to heading (the crop growth rate was about 22.5 g/(m -2 · d) and the accumulation of dry matter was more than 9000 kg/hm 2 accounting for 45% of the total weigh of dry matter) and with increasing the dry matter production and accumulation from heading to maturity effectively (the crop growth rate was about 13.5 g/(m -2 · d) and the accumulation of dry matter was more than 8000 kg/hm 2 accounting for 45% of the total weigh of dry matter). And the super high yield would be obtained if the rules above are followed in the production of mechanical transplanted japonica hybrid rice.