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Jia H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shao M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guan R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Fortyfour protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. © 2015 Jia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Song Y.,Anhui Agricultural University | Rui Y.,China Agricultural University | Bedane G.,University of Queensland | Li J.,Anhui Agricultural University | Li J.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Improving crop productivity through higher plant density requires a detailed understanding of organ development in response to increased interplant competition. The objective of this paper is thus to investigate the characteristics of organ development under increased interplant competition. A field experiment was conducted to investigate organ development across 4 maize plant densities i.e. 2, 6, 12 and 20 plants m-2 (referred to PD2, PD6, PD12 and PD20 respectively). In response to increased interplant competition, lengths of both laminae and sheaths increased in lower phytomers, but decreased in upper phytomers. Sheath extension appeared to be less sensitive to increased interplant competition than lamina extension. Extension of laminae and internodes responded to increased plant density as soon as onset of mild interplant competition, but did not respond any further to severe competition. Both lamina width and internode diameter were reduced due to a smaller growth rate in response to increased plant density. Overall, this study identified that organ expansion rate can be taken as the key morphological factor to determine the degree of interplant competition. © 2016 Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Liu W.,Zhejiang University | Li W.,Zhejiang University | He Q.,Zhejiang University | Daud M.K.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

To produce unsaturated fatty acids, membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs) can be exploited to introduce double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids. In this study, 19 membrane-bound FAD genes were identified in Gossypium raimondii through database searches and were classified into four different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. All 19 membrane-bound FAD proteins shared three highly conserved histidine boxes, except for GrFAD2.1, which lost the third histidine box in the C-terminal region. In the G. raimondii genome, tandem duplication might have led to the increasing size of the FAD2 cluster in the Omega Desaturase subfamily, whereas segmental duplication appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the expansion of the Sphingolipid and Front-end Desaturase subfamilies. Gene expression analysis showed that seven membrane-bound FAD genes were significantly up-regulated and that five genes were greatly suppressed in G. raimondii leaves exposed to low temperature conditions. © 2015 Liu et al. Source

Xi M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xi M.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

Using white-belly and white-core mutants of a japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing3, this study was conducted to compare the physicochemical properties of grains differing in chalkiness type. Chalky grains were larger in length, width, and thickness than the translucent grains, and consequently had higher weight. The notable differences were observed for chemical compositions, with chalky grains showing lower contents of starch and protein than the translucent. Similar trends were noted in the majority of the 17 amino acids examined and contents of manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg), suggesting the important role of storage compounds in chalkiness formation. White-belly grains differed from white-core grains in chemical components, with the former having higher amylose contents and lower Zn content. Additionally, white-core grains exhibited markedly lower contents of amino acids derived from oxaloacetate and phosphoenolpyruvate like phenylalanine, aspartate and threonine. However, no noticeable differences were detected between white-belly and translucent grains. Our results indicate different underlying mechanisms of white-belly and white-core, suggesting the necessity of comparing white-belly and white-core in the studies on chalkiness. In addition, future study should focus on interpreting the active role of protein accumulation in chalkiness formation from perspective of interactions of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Grain chalkiness is a complex trait adversely affecting appearance and milling quality, and therefore has been one of principal targets for rice improvement. Eliminating chalkiness from rice has been a daunting task due to the complex interaction between genotype and environment and the lack of molecular markers. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying grain chalkiness formation are still imperfectly understood.Results: We identified a notched-belly mutant (DY1102) with high percentage of white-belly, which only occurs in the bottom part proximal to the embryo. Using this mutant, a novel comparison system that can minimize the effect of genetic background and growing environment was developed. An iTRAQ-based comparative display of the proteins between the bottom chalky part and the upper translucent part of grains of DY1102 was performed. A total of 113 proteins responsible for chalkiness formation was identified. Among them, 70 proteins are up-regulated and 43 down-regulated. Approximately half of these differentially expressed proteins involved in central metabolic or regulatory pathways including carbohydrate metabolism (especially cell wall synthesis) and protein synthesis, folding and degradation, providing proteomic confirmation of the notion that chalkiness formation involves diverse but delicately regulated pathways. Protein metabolism was the most abundant category, accounting for 27.4% of the total differentially expressed proteins. In addition, down regulation of PDIL 2-3 and BiP was detected in the chalky tissue, indicating the important role of protein metabolism in grain chalkiness formation.Conclusions: Using this novel comparison system, our comprehensive survey of endosperm proteomics in the notched-belly mutant provides a valuable proteomic resource for the characterization of pathways contributing to chalkiness formation at molecular and biochemical levels. © 2014 Lin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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