Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production

Nanjing, China

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production

Nanjing, China
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Hao D.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Xue L.,Jiangsu Yanjiang Institute of Agricultural science | Xue L.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production | Yuan J.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2017

Starch paste viscosity properties are widely used as important indicators for quality estimation in waxy maize. To elucidate the genetic basis of paste viscosity characteristics of waxy maize, seven parameters from the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profile were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this study, using a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the inbred lines Tongxi5 and Hengbai522. A high-density linkage map was constructed using 2703 bin markers, covering 1876.20 cM of the whole genome with an average genetic distance of 0.73 cM between adjacent bin markers. Seventy-two QTLs were detected for RVA parameters across 3 years, of which 17 could be identified in 2 years, and 6 identified in all 3 years. Eight QTL clusters were observed to be co-associated with two or more RVA parameters. Three major QTLs, qPV4-1, qTV4-1, and qFV5-2, which explained over 10% of the phenotypic variation, were stably mapped to the chromosomes 4 or 5 in all years. Based on functional annotations, two genes were considered as potential candidate genes for the identified major QTLs. The QTLs and candidate genes identified in this study will be useful for further understanding of the genetic architecture of starch paste viscosity characteristics in waxy maize, and may facilitate molecular breeding for grain quality improvement in breeding programs, and simultaneously provide a basis for cloning of the genes underlying these QTLs. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2017

Rice grain chalkiness is a highly complex trait involved in multiple metabolic pathways and controlled by polygenes and growth conditions. To uncover novel aspects of chalkiness formation, we performed an integrated profiling of gene activity in the developing grains of a notched-belly rice mutant. Using exhaustive tandem mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics and whole-genome RNA sequencing to generate a nearly complete catalog of expressed mRNAs and proteins, we reliably identified 38,476 transcripts and 3,840 proteins. Comparison between the translucent part and chalky part of the notched-belly grains resulted in only a few differently express genes (240) and differently express proteins (363), thus making it possible to focus on 'core' genes or common pathways. Several novel key pathways were identified as of relevance to chalkiness formation, in particular the shift of C and N metabolism, the down-regulation of ribosomal proteins and the resulting low abundance of storage proteins especially the 13 kDa prolamin subunit, and the suppressed photosynthetic capacity in the pericarp of the chalky part. Further, genes and proteins as transporters for carbohydrates, amino acid/peptides, proteins, lipids and inorganic ions showed an increasing expression pattern in the chalky part of the notched-belly grains. Similarly, transcripts and proteins of receptors for auxin, ABA, ethylene and brassinosteroid were also up-regulated. In summary, this joint analysis of transcript and protein profiles provides a comprehensive reference map of gene activity regarding the physiological state in the chalky endosperm. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved.

Lv F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Han M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ge D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Dong H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2017

Main conclusion: GhVLN4 exhibited activity of cross-linking actin filaments into bundles. Overexpression ofGhVLN4increased the abundance of thick actin bundles and resulted in longer cell phenotypes.Actin bundle is a dynamic, higher-order cytoskeleton structure that is essential for cell expansion. Villin is one of the major proteins responsible for crosslinking actin filaments into bundles. However, this kind of actin binding protein has rarely been investigated in cotton. In the present work, a cotton villin gene was molecularly cloned from Upland cotton and denominated as GhVLN4. This gene was more highly expressed in fiber-bearing wild-type cotton TM-1 (Texas Marker-1) than in Ligon lintless-1 mutant (Li-1). Biochemical analysis combined with subcellular localization revealed that GhVLN4 is an actin-binding protein performing actin filament bundling activity in vitro. In line with these findings, a greater abundance of thick actin filament bundles were observed in GhVLN4-overexpressing transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type control. Moreover, ectopic expression of GhVLN4 significantly enhanced the cell length–width ratio of Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast and increased the length of various Arabidopsis cells, including root cells, root hairs and pollen tubes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GhVLN4 is involved in the generation of actin filament bundles, suggesting that GhVLN4 may play important roles in regulating plant cell morphogenesis and expansion by remodeling actin cytoskeleton. © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

You C.,Anhui Agricultural University | You C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Chen L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He H.,Anhui Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2017

Background: Large-panicle rice varieties often fail to achieve their yield potential due to poor grain filling of late-flowering inferior spikelets (IS). The physiological and molecular mechanisms of poor IS grain filling, and whether an increase in assimilate supply could regulate protein abundance and consequently improve IS grain filling for japonica rice with large panicles is still partially understood. Results: A field experiment was performed with two spikelet removal treatments at anthesis in the large-panicle japonica rice line W1844, including removal of the top 1/3 of spikelets (T1) and removal of the top 2/3 of spikelets (T2), with no spikelet removal as a control (T0). The size, weight, setting rate, and grain filling rate of IS were significantly increased after spikelet removing. The biological functions of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between superior and inferior spikelets as well as the response of IS to the removal of superior spikelets (SS) were investigated by using iTRAQ at 10 days post anthesis. A total of 159, 87, and 28 DEPs were identified from group A (T0-SS/T0-IS), group B (T0-SS/T2-IS), and group C (T2-IS/T0-IS), respectively. Among these, 104, 63, and 22 proteins were up-regulated, and 55, 24, and 6 proteins were down-regulated, respectively. Approximately half of these DEPs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism (sucrose-to-starch metabolism and energy metabolism) and protein metabolism (protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and storage). Conclusions: Reduced endosperm cell division and decreased activities of key enzymes associated with sucrose-starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism are mainly attributed to the poor sink strength of IS. In addition, due to weakened photosynthesis and respiration, IS are unable to obtain a timely supply of materials and energy after fertilization, which might be resulted in the stagnation of IS development. Finally, an increased abundance of 14-3-3 protein in IS could be involved in the inhibition of starch synthesis. The removal of SS contributed to transfer of assimilates to IS and enhanced enzymatic activities of carbon metabolism (sucrose synthase, starch branching enzyme, soluble starch synthase, and pullulanase) and nitrogen metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase), promoting starch and protein synthesis in IS. In addition, improvements in energy metabolism (greater abundance of pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase) might be played a vital role in inducing the initiation of grain filling. These results collectively demonstrate that carbohydrate supply is the main cause of poor IS grain filling. © 2017 The Author(s).

Lin Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lin Z.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2017

Background: Grain chalkiness is a highly undesirable trait deleterious to rice appearance and milling quality. The physiological and molecular foundation of chalkiness formation is still partially understood, because of the complex interactions between multiple genes and growing environments. Results: We report the untargeted metabolomic analysis of grains from a notched-belly mutant (DY1102) with high percentage of white-belly, which predominantly occurs in the bottom part proximal to the embryo. Metabolites in developing grains were profiled on the composite platforms of UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Sampling times were 5, 10, 15, and 20 days after anthesis, the critical time points for chalkiness formation. A total of 214 metabolites were identified, covering most of the central metabolic pathways and partial secondary pathways including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, cofactors, peptides, nucleotides, phytohormones, and secondary metabolites. A comparison of the bottom chalky part and the upper translucent part of developing grains of DY1102 resulted in 180 metabolites related to chalkiness formation. Conclusions: Generally, in comparison to the translucent upper part, the chalky endosperm had lower levels of metabolites regarding carbon and nitrogen metabolism for synthesis of storage starch and protein, which was accompanied by perturbation of pathways participating in scavenging of reactive oxygen species, osmorugulation, cell wall synthesis, and mineral ion homeostasis. Based on these results, metabolic mechanism of chalkiness formation is discussed, with the role of embryo highlighted. © 2017 The Author(s).

Liu J.,Zhejiang University | Zhao Q.,Zhejiang University | Zhao Q.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production | Zhou L.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2017

High temperature (HT) is the major environmental factor affecting grain starch properties of cooking rice cultivars. However, little information has been available on the effect of environmental temperature on the starch granule size distribution of rice grains. In this paper, five indica rice genotypes, including the wild type (9311) and its four mutants differing in amylose content (AC), were used to investigate the effect of environmental temperature on the starch granule size distribution, as well as its relation to AC and gelatinization properties of rice starch. Two temperature treatments (HT and NT) at filling stage were imposed to rice plants under the controlled temperature chambers. The result showed that HT increased the average diameter of starch granules and enhanced the proportion of large starch granules (LSG, D > 2.6 μm) by number, volume and surface area, respectively. However, influence of HT on GT and starch granule size distribution was relatively independent of their alteration in AC level for different rice genotypes. Therefore, HT-induced increase in the average diameter of starch granules and LSG percentage was strongly responsible for the higher starch gelatinization temperature and inferior cooked palatability of HT-ripening rice grains, which be not inherently associated with their varying AC level. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Song Y.,Anhui Agricultural University | Rui Y.,China Agricultural University | Bedane G.,University of Queensland | Li J.,Anhui Agricultural University | Li J.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Improving crop productivity through higher plant density requires a detailed understanding of organ development in response to increased interplant competition. The objective of this paper is thus to investigate the characteristics of organ development under increased interplant competition. A field experiment was conducted to investigate organ development across 4 maize plant densities i.e. 2, 6, 12 and 20 plants m-2 (referred to PD2, PD6, PD12 and PD20 respectively). In response to increased interplant competition, lengths of both laminae and sheaths increased in lower phytomers, but decreased in upper phytomers. Sheath extension appeared to be less sensitive to increased interplant competition than lamina extension. Extension of laminae and internodes responded to increased plant density as soon as onset of mild interplant competition, but did not respond any further to severe competition. Both lamina width and internode diameter were reduced due to a smaller growth rate in response to increased plant density. Overall, this study identified that organ expansion rate can be taken as the key morphological factor to determine the degree of interplant competition. © 2016 Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

He H.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wu L.,Anhui Agricultural University | Yang R.,Shihezi University | Ma F.,Shihezi University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

To investigate the effects of water regimes on yield formation, photosynthetic characteristics and transpiration efficiency of rice plants in arid region, plot experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Shihezi City with three water treatments, including flooding irrigation (W1), controlled irrigation technology (W2) and aerobic rice (W3). The results showed that there was no significant difference for net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in W1 and W2 treatments before anthesis, but W1 treatment was 11.29%~20.91% higher than W2 treatment, and 38.65%~52.03% higher than W3 treatment after anthesis across both years. Further analysis indicated that little difference of the parameters of Pn, carboxylation efficiency, saturation light intensity, and compensation light intensity were existed in W1 and W2 treatments in saturated soil moisture, the lower Pn in W2 and W3 treatments than that in W1 treatment was mainly due to significantly decreased Pn in W2 and W3 treatments when soil water content was unsaturated in 2011 and 2012 (p<0.05). Moreover, the diurnal changes of Pn was higher in W1 treatment than that in W2 and W3 treatments during whole observed times, and the difference was greater on forenoon (before 12:00) than on afternoon (after 14:00) among treatments. Finally, the grain yield in W2 and W3 treatments only decreased by 4.43%~18.72% and 31.23%~39.45% when compared with W1 treatment considering both years. The transpiration efficiency in W2 treatment was always significantly greater than that in W1 and W3 treatments during whole growth stages in both years (p<0.05). Generally speaking, the W2 treatment performs high grain yield and high water use efficiency in arid region, meanwhile, the grain yield in W2 treatment could be increased when improving photosynthetic produce ability in the afternoon at grain-filling stage. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.

Jia H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shao M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guan R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Fortyfour protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. © 2015 Jia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Liu W.,Zhejiang University | Li W.,Zhejiang University | He Q.,Zhejiang University | Daud M.K.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

To produce unsaturated fatty acids, membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs) can be exploited to introduce double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids. In this study, 19 membrane-bound FAD genes were identified in Gossypium raimondii through database searches and were classified into four different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. All 19 membrane-bound FAD proteins shared three highly conserved histidine boxes, except for GrFAD2.1, which lost the third histidine box in the C-terminal region. In the G. raimondii genome, tandem duplication might have led to the increasing size of the FAD2 cluster in the Omega Desaturase subfamily, whereas segmental duplication appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the expansion of the Sphingolipid and Front-end Desaturase subfamilies. Gene expression analysis showed that seven membrane-bound FAD genes were significantly up-regulated and that five genes were greatly suppressed in G. raimondii leaves exposed to low temperature conditions. © 2015 Liu et al.

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