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Jiang J.F.,CAS Institute of Botany | Wan X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Li J.G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Dong Y.H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

This study investigated the effect of boron nutrient on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and the regulation mechanisms. Plants, cultured in nutrient solution and treated with three concentrations of B (0.05, 0.50 and 2.50 mg l−1), were inoculated with R. solanacearum by the method of root dip. Severity of disease development, plant nutrient uptake, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) activity, enzymes like peroxidase (POD, EC, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC activities in tomato leaves were analyzed. Disease severity of low, medium and high B treatments were 95.2%, 72.6% and 63.4% respectively. There was no significant difference in plant dry weight, indicating no B toxic or deficiency phenomenon in all treatments. Tomato plants absorbed significantly more Ca and B with the level of B in the nutrient solution increased. In addition, H2O2 level in high B treatment rose faster and reached a higher peak with 11.94 μM gFW−1 (96.7% greater than low B plants). The activities of POD and PPO also have a greater increase in high B treatment with 97.12 U gFW−1 and 94.00 U gFW−1 compared to 39.16 U gFW−1 and 70.51 U gFW−1 in low B treatment. These results suggested that the regulation mechanism of B was to increase the Ca and B concentration, improve the rate and the amount of H2 O2 accumulation, and increase the activities of POD and PPO in tomato. © 2016, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.

Wang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Zhang M.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu M.-S.,Nanjing University | Xu C.,Nanjing University
Wetland Science | Year: 2013

The agricultural/aquacultural reclamation of aggradational littoral beaches has provided great economic benefits and vast amount of land resources for Jiangsu province in recent 30 years. Most of the coastal wetlands are the aggradational littoral beaches in Jiangsu province. The aggradational littoral beaches in Jiangsu province could be classified to typical aggradational littoral beaches (from Doulong Harbor to Dongzao Harbor), which aggrades both horizontally and vertically; and transitional aggradational littoral beaches (from Sheyang estuary to the Doulong Harbor, and Haozhi Harbor to Qidongzui), which aggrades vertically, but erodes horizontally in low tide flat. To improve the development strategy of agriculture/aquaculture in the aggradational littoral beaches, the area variations, fate and source of agricultural/ aquacultural lands of the aggradational littoral beaches in the recent 30 years were studied, based on 4 periods (respectively, before 1980, around 1990, 2002 and 2010) of Landsat images. The results showed that the total area of aggradational littoral beaches in Jiangsu province has increased from 2 100.18 km2 to 3 686.31 km2, the area of agricultural lands increased from 436.56 km2 to 909.31 km2, and that of aquacultral lands increased from 31.67 km2 to 838.94 km2 in recent 30 years. In typical aggradational littoral beaches, the agricultural land increased proportionally with the expansion of wetlands, and the percentage of agricultural land in each period was larger than the percentage of aquaculutural land: the area percentages of agricultural land in four periods were 20.79%, 27.12%, 24.95% and 24.67%, respectively; the area percentages of aquacultural land in 4 periods were 0.36%, 7.49%, 19.15% and 22.23%, respectively. In the transitional aggradational littoral beaches, much more lands were reclaimed for aquaculture than for agriculture in the last three decades, the area percentages of agricultural land in 4 periods were 4.97%, 4.30%, 3.97% and 13.01%, respectively; while the area percentages of aquacultural land in 4 periods were 5.73%, 6.74%, 31.56% and 26.54%, respectively. After intensive reclamation in recent 30 years, the proportion of natural wetland decreased from 74.59% to 50.30%, as well as the tendency of natural marshes (such as Phragmites australis community, Saueda sp. community) transmitted to agricultural/aquacultural lands weakened.

Luo Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Luo Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tang S.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Li C.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in biogeography and macroecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms driving biodiversity patterns, but the causes of species richness gradients remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explain the impacts of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity factors on variation of vertebrate species richness (VSR), based on the VSR pattern in China, so as to test the energy hypothesis, the environmental stability hypothesis, and the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings: A dataset was compiled containing the distributions of 2,665 vertebrate species and eleven ecogeographic predictive variables in China. We grouped these variables into categories of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity and transformed the data into 100×100 km quadrat systems. To test the three hypotheses, AIC-based model selection was carried out between VSR and the variables in each group and correlation analyses were conducted. There was a decreasing VSR gradient from the southeast to the northwest of China. Our results showed that energy explained 67.6% of the VSR variation, with the annual mean temperature as the main factor, which was followed by annual precipitation and NDVI. Environmental stability factors explained 69.1% of the VSR variation and both temperature annual range and precipitation seasonality had important contributions. By contrast, habitat heterogeneity variables explained only 26.3% of the VSR variation. Significantly positive correlations were detected among VSR, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and NDVI, whereas the relationship of VSR and temperature annual range was strongly negative. In addition, other variables showed moderate or ambiguous relations to VSR. Conclusions/Significance: The energy hypothesis and the environmental stability hypothesis were supported, whereas little support was found for the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. © 2012 Luo et al.

Zhang M.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Fang Y.,Nanjing Forestry University | Ji Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Jiang Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Wang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Although some plant responses to salinity have been characterized, the precise mechanisms by which salt stress damages plants are still poorly understood especially in woody plants. In the present study, the physiological and biochemical responses of Broussonetia papyrifera, a tree species of the family, Moraceae, to salinity were studied. In vitro-produced plantlets of B. papyrifera were treated with varying levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) in hydroponic culture. Changes in ion contents, accumulation of H2O2, as well as the activities and isoform profiles of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves, stems and roots were investigated. Under salt stress, there was higher Na+ accumulation in roots than in stems and leaves, and Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+ content, as well as K+/Na+ ratio were affected. NaCl treatment induced an increase in H2O2 contents in the tissues of B. papyrifera. The work demonstrated that activities of antioxidant defense enzymes changed in parallel with the increased H2O2 and salinity appeared to be associated with differential regulation of distinct SOD and POD isoenzymes. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis of total proteins extracted from leaves and roots of control and NaCl-treated plantlets revealed that in the leaves salt stress was associated with decrease or disappearance of some protein bands, and induction of a new protein band after exposure to 100 and 150mM NaCl. In contrast, NaCl stress had little effect on the protein pattern in the roots. In summary, these findings may provide insight into the mechanisms of the response of woody plants to salt stress. © 2012 South African Association of Botanists.

Sui D.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Sui D.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang B.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Shi S.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | He X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

Salt in saline land is regarded as a kind of abiotic stress that limits the productivity of plants and their geographical distribution. To understand the mechanism of how shrub willow clones seedling respond to salt stress at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from seedling leaves of salt sensitive cultivar JW9-6 and salt tolerant cultivar JW2372 were tested under salt stress for the different durations, including 2, 12 and 72 h, using 2-D electrophoresis. Totally, 83 differentially expressed proteins were found using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were divided into 11 classes. The primary findings from this study are: (1) enhanced ROS scavenging capacity leads to increased salt tolerance for the shrub willow that protects redox homeostasis system from being damaged; (2) different measures, e.g., the inhibition of protein synthesis, protein folding and assembly, and enhancing protein proteolysis, were essential for shrub willow seedlings to respond to salt stress; (3) salt stress could affect the pathways of photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy supply, and metabolism for amino acid and nitrogen. (4) JW2372 are more salt tolerant than that of cultivar JW9-6 due to overall performance of the above pathways. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

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