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Zhang Q.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhang M.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Zhou P.,Nanjing Forestry University | Fang Y.,Nanjing Forestry University | Ji Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2017

Agroforestry systems have been considered a form of sustainable land use. Woody species in agroforestry systems can improve soil physicochemical properties by supplying leaf or stem litter. However, little is known about fungal community structure and diversity in agroforestry systems. In the present study, the culture-independent 18S rDNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was used to investigate fungal community structure in rhizosphere and bulk soil in Populus euramevicana-barley and Taxodium distichum-barley agroforestry systems. DGGE profiling and cluster analysis revealed that the fungal community structure in the rhizosphere was more complex than that of bulk soil. Our results also indicated that the rhizosphere fungal community in barley was less affected by T. distichum than by P. euramevicana. In addition, an increase in the relative abundance of certain rhizosphere fungal populations was detected in this agroforestry system. Sequencing of prominent DGGE bands revealed an increase in the rhizosphere of a fungal species belonging to the genera Chaetomium, which includes potential biocontrol agents. A rare cellulolytic fungus, Acremonium alcalophilum, was found in the bulk soil from P. euramevicana and barley grown under P. euramevicana. Taken together, our findings may provide new insights into agroforestry practices. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Zhang M.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Fang Y.,Nanjing Forestry University | Ji Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Jiang Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Wang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Although some plant responses to salinity have been characterized, the precise mechanisms by which salt stress damages plants are still poorly understood especially in woody plants. In the present study, the physiological and biochemical responses of Broussonetia papyrifera, a tree species of the family, Moraceae, to salinity were studied. In vitro-produced plantlets of B. papyrifera were treated with varying levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) in hydroponic culture. Changes in ion contents, accumulation of H2O2, as well as the activities and isoform profiles of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves, stems and roots were investigated. Under salt stress, there was higher Na+ accumulation in roots than in stems and leaves, and Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+ content, as well as K+/Na+ ratio were affected. NaCl treatment induced an increase in H2O2 contents in the tissues of B. papyrifera. The work demonstrated that activities of antioxidant defense enzymes changed in parallel with the increased H2O2 and salinity appeared to be associated with differential regulation of distinct SOD and POD isoenzymes. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis of total proteins extracted from leaves and roots of control and NaCl-treated plantlets revealed that in the leaves salt stress was associated with decrease or disappearance of some protein bands, and induction of a new protein band after exposure to 100 and 150mM NaCl. In contrast, NaCl stress had little effect on the protein pattern in the roots. In summary, these findings may provide insight into the mechanisms of the response of woody plants to salt stress. © 2012 South African Association of Botanists.


Sui D.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Sui D.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang B.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Shi S.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | He X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

Salt in saline land is regarded as a kind of abiotic stress that limits the productivity of plants and their geographical distribution. To understand the mechanism of how shrub willow clones seedling respond to salt stress at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from seedling leaves of salt sensitive cultivar JW9-6 and salt tolerant cultivar JW2372 were tested under salt stress for the different durations, including 2, 12 and 72 h, using 2-D electrophoresis. Totally, 83 differentially expressed proteins were found using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were divided into 11 classes. The primary findings from this study are: (1) enhanced ROS scavenging capacity leads to increased salt tolerance for the shrub willow that protects redox homeostasis system from being damaged; (2) different measures, e.g., the inhibition of protein synthesis, protein folding and assembly, and enhancing protein proteolysis, were essential for shrub willow seedlings to respond to salt stress; (3) salt stress could affect the pathways of photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy supply, and metabolism for amino acid and nitrogen. (4) JW2372 are more salt tolerant than that of cultivar JW9-6 due to overall performance of the above pathways. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Ding J.,Beijing Normal University | Ding J.,Jiangsu Academy of forestry | Liu D.,Beijing Normal University | Li C.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Jiang Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Macroecology is concerned with changes in biodiversity as well as the causes of these changes on large scales. Biodiversity can show changes over time and over space. Species diversity, as the determinant of biodiversity, shows spatial heterogeneity. China has high biodiversity. An increasing number of scientists are interested in the large-scale spatial variation in biodiversity within China. The natural environments in China have clear boundaries, which have influence the distributions of animals and ecosystems. According to climate type, China can be divided into three natural regions: the eastern monsoon region, the northwest arid region and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region. Study of the spatial pattern of the biodiversity found in China may contribute to the understanding of large-scale patterns in biodiversity. The fauna information database (FID), founded by the Wildlife and Behavioral Ecology Research Group, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, contains information on the distribution of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in China. The FID was compiled with data on species checklists of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals from 205 nature reserves across mainland China. They covered most parts of the country except Jiangsu Province, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. In this study, we explored the spatial variation in the G-F indices of birds and mammals with geostatistical techniques. As a measure of species diversity, we computed the G-F index using data on birds and mammals in the FID. The G-F index, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, provides a standardized measure of the diversity of species of common origin and similar environmental requirements. We treated the G-F index as a regional variable and obtained semivariance models and parameters of birds and mammals individually for each of the three natural regions. Semivariograms were produced using semivariance analysis methods of GS-plus software. Using the semivariograms and model parameters, we analyzed the characteristics of the spatial variation in bird and mammal diversity in each natural region. The semivariance of the G-F index of birds was fitted with a linear model in the eastern monsoon region and the northwest arid region of China. The parameters demonstrated that species diversity of birds had a weak spatial dependence in the eastern monsoon region and the northwest arid region of China. There was no spatial correlation with pure nugget effects on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, indicating that the spatial variation in bird species diversity was caused by random factors. This may be due to the high dispersal abilities of birds. The semivariance of the G-F index of mammals showed no relationship in the eastern monsoon region and had pure nugget effects in the northwest arid region. However, data of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was best explained by a spherical model. The parameters revealed that spatial pattern of mammalian species diversity was random in the eastern monsoon region and in the northwest arid region but had a strong spatial dependence with a correlation spatial range of 71492- 1020000 m on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This spatial pattern of avian and mammalian species diversity is likely attributable to the interaction between the particular physical environment and life history of birds and mammals. The macroscale spatial pattern of species diversity should be taken into account in the formation of conservation action plans.


Zhang M.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Fang Y.,Nanjing Forestry University | Liang Z.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Huang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) may play a pivotal role in maintenance of ion homeostasis inside plant cells. In the present study, the expression of V-H+-ATPase genes was analyzed in the roots and leaves of a woody plant, Broussonetia papyrifera, which was stressed with 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, the expression and distribution of the subunit E protein were investigated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These showed that treatment of B. papyrifera with NaCl distinctly changed the hydrolytic activity of V-H+-ATPase in the roots and leaves. Salinity induced a dramatic increase in V-H+-ATPase hydrolytic activity in the roots. However, only slight changes in V-H+-ATPase hydrolytic activity were observed in the leaves. In contrast, increased H+ pumping activity of V-H+-ATPase was observed in both the roots and leaves. In addition, NaCl treatment led to an increase in H+-pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) activity in the roots. Moreover, NaCl treatment triggered the enhancement of mRNA levels for subunits A, E and c of V-H+-ATPase in the roots, whereas only subunit c mRNA was observed to increase in the leaves. By Western blot and immunocytological analysis, subunit E was shown to be augmented in response to salinity stress in the roots. These findings provide evidence that under salt stress, increased V-H+-ATPase activity in the roots was positively correlated with higher transcript and protein levels of V-H+-ATPase subunit E. Altogether, our results suggest an essential role for V-H+-ATPase subunit E in the response of plants to salinity stress. © 2012 Zhang et al.


Jiang J.F.,CAS Institute of Botany | Wan X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Li J.G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Dong Y.H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

This study investigated the effect of boron nutrient on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and the regulation mechanisms. Plants, cultured in nutrient solution and treated with three concentrations of B (0.05, 0.50 and 2.50 mg l−1), were inoculated with R. solanacearum by the method of root dip. Severity of disease development, plant nutrient uptake, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2) activity, enzymes like peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.2) activities in tomato leaves were analyzed. Disease severity of low, medium and high B treatments were 95.2%, 72.6% and 63.4% respectively. There was no significant difference in plant dry weight, indicating no B toxic or deficiency phenomenon in all treatments. Tomato plants absorbed significantly more Ca and B with the level of B in the nutrient solution increased. In addition, H2O2 level in high B treatment rose faster and reached a higher peak with 11.94 μM gFW−1 (96.7% greater than low B plants). The activities of POD and PPO also have a greater increase in high B treatment with 97.12 U gFW−1 and 94.00 U gFW−1 compared to 39.16 U gFW−1 and 70.51 U gFW−1 in low B treatment. These results suggested that the regulation mechanism of B was to increase the Ca and B concentration, improve the rate and the amount of H2 O2 accumulation, and increase the activities of POD and PPO in tomato. © 2016, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.


Huang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Dou Q.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Dong X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Zhang M.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Li X.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Linye Kexue/Scientia Silvae Sinicae | Year: 2016

A new variety of Michelia maudiae named as 'Jinxiu' was derived from selecting seedling variations of M. maudiae. The main characteristics of the variety are fast growth,with a spire shaped crown and straight trunk, and its branches are slightly flat and layered. The young buds, young twigs and leaf abaxial surface are green without white powder attached. It is mainly propagated through grafting.This new variety could be widely popularized and applied for gardens virescence and mountain afforestation in the south of the Yangtze River. © 2016, Editorial Department of Scientia Silvae Sinicae. All right reserved.


Li D.-L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Wang L.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Ding J.-J.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry | Rui W.-Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Wetland Science | Year: 2011

Aquatic plants are one of the important factors in maintaining water ecological quality effectively. A " lots of research showed that aquatic plants have many important functions, such as producing oxygen, nitrogen cycling, and adsorption deposit, controlling the harmful algal breeding, lightening water eutrophication, improving water clear ability. Moreover aquatic plants can provide inhabits and food to aquatic animals and microbe, maintain species diversity too. The concepts and classifying methods of aquatic plants were clarified by synthesized researched progress of aquatic plants in the paper. Ecological functions of aquatic plants were systematically summarized; their utilizing actuality and effect on building in the cities were discussed. Presently, much of correlative basic researches on aquatic plants, such as the collecting of genetic resources, breeding of new varieties, the general industrialized level and ecological functions with much faultiness in China. The more efforts of relevant studies were concentrated on ecological effect of aquatic plants on rivers and lakes water environment, but studies on their eco-physiological characteristics and regulation in adverse circumstances were few; presently, the researches on absorption of aquatic plants to nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water have already been reported frequently in China, but the studies on the morphology structure of aquatic plants and adaptation to water microenvironment were reported a fat lot; there were many researches of herbaceous plants than woody plants, the studies of woody plants just was about Kandelia candel. Questions need to be paid attention to and some suggestions on researches of aquatic plants as follows. To strengthen the basic research work on material cycling of aquatic plants and effect to water nutrient cycling under pollution stress, in the same time, great importance to the basic research on the influences and mechanism of the growth and morphological structure changes of aquatic plants in water ecosystem should be attached; the comprehensive analysis researches of the ecological characteristics, landscape impact and ecological benefit of aquatic plants should be paid great attention to; about the utilization researches of aquatic plants, to expand the scope of screening of plant resources, attach great significance to the introduction of aquatic trees and evergreen shrubs with good water resistance, make further improvement on the hydrophyte diversity and overall function, which will be helpful to promote the damaged wetland system restoration and rebuilding.


Luo Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Luo Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tang S.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Li C.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in biogeography and macroecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms driving biodiversity patterns, but the causes of species richness gradients remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explain the impacts of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity factors on variation of vertebrate species richness (VSR), based on the VSR pattern in China, so as to test the energy hypothesis, the environmental stability hypothesis, and the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings: A dataset was compiled containing the distributions of 2,665 vertebrate species and eleven ecogeographic predictive variables in China. We grouped these variables into categories of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity and transformed the data into 100×100 km quadrat systems. To test the three hypotheses, AIC-based model selection was carried out between VSR and the variables in each group and correlation analyses were conducted. There was a decreasing VSR gradient from the southeast to the northwest of China. Our results showed that energy explained 67.6% of the VSR variation, with the annual mean temperature as the main factor, which was followed by annual precipitation and NDVI. Environmental stability factors explained 69.1% of the VSR variation and both temperature annual range and precipitation seasonality had important contributions. By contrast, habitat heterogeneity variables explained only 26.3% of the VSR variation. Significantly positive correlations were detected among VSR, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and NDVI, whereas the relationship of VSR and temperature annual range was strongly negative. In addition, other variables showed moderate or ambiguous relations to VSR. Conclusions/Significance: The energy hypothesis and the environmental stability hypothesis were supported, whereas little support was found for the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. © 2012 Luo et al.


PubMed | Jiangsu Academy of Forestry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase) may play a pivotal role in maintenance of ion homeostasis inside plant cells. In the present study, the expression of V-H(+)-ATPase genes was analyzed in the roots and leaves of a woody plant, Broussonetia papyrifera, which was stressed with 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, the expression and distribution of the subunit E protein were investigated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These showed that treatment of B. papyrifera with NaCl distinctly changed the hydrolytic activity of V-H(+)-ATPase in the roots and leaves. Salinity induced a dramatic increase in V-H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic activity in the roots. However, only slight changes in V-H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic activity were observed in the leaves. In contrast, increased H(+) pumping activity of V-H(+)-ATPase was observed in both the roots and leaves. In addition, NaCl treatment led to an increase in H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-H(+)-PPase) activity in the roots. Moreover, NaCl treatment triggered the enhancement of mRNA levels for subunits A, E and c of V-H(+)-ATPase in the roots, whereas only subunit c mRNA was observed to increase in the leaves. By Western blot and immunocytological analysis, subunit E was shown to be augmented in response to salinity stress in the roots. These findings provide evidence that under salt stress, increased V-H(+)-ATPase activity in the roots was positively correlated with higher transcript and protein levels of V-H(+)-ATPase subunit E. Altogether, our results suggest an essential role for V-H(+)-ATPase subunit E in the response of plants to salinity stress.

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