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Liu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

In this paper, a new double hydrophilic and environment-friendly polyether copolymer inhibitor, polyethylene glycol double-ester of maleic anhydride-acrylic acid (PEGDMA-AA), was synthesized to inhibit the precipitation of calcium carbonate and Fe(III) scales. Structures of PEG, PEGDMA, and PEGDMA-AA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR). The influence of PEGDMA-AA dosage and mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) toward CaCO3 and Fe scale were tested through static jar scale inhibition and dispersion tests. The optimal mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) was 1:1 for calcium carbonate inhibition and 1:2 for dispersing Fe(III), respectively. Investigation of influence of solution properties on CaCO3 inhibition was also carried out and dispersion ability for Fe(III) was compared with commercial inhibitors. The effect of PEGDMA-AA on the morphology, size, and crystal form of CaCO3 particles were examined through scanning electron microscopic, transmission electron microscope, X-ray powder diffraction, and FTIR. One supposed mechanism (core-shell structure) was also described in detail. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2015

This study focuses on the effect of a water-soluble copolymer, acrylic acid–oxalic acid–allylpolyethoxy carboxylate–8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (pyranine) (AA–APEM–APTA). APEM and APTA were copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) to synthesize APTA tagged no phosphate and nitrogen-free calcium sulfate inhibitor AA–APEM–APTA. Structures of AA–APEM–APTA were evaluated by FT-IR and 1H-NMR, and oxalic acid, APEG and APEM by C13-NMR. The observation shows that the dosage of AA–APEM–APTA plays an important role in CaSO4 inhibition. The performance of copolymer on inhibition of CaSO4 precipitation was compared with that of current commercial inhibitors. It was shown that the copolymer exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 96 % CaSO4 inhibition. The relationship between AA–APEM–APTA’s fluorescent intensity and its dosage was studied. The correlation coefficient R2 of AA–APEM–APTA is 0.9999. The effect on formation of CaSO4 was investigated with a combination of scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis. AA–APEM–APTA can be used safely in cooling water systems. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Novel double-hydrophilic block copolymers, acrylic acid (AA)-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulfonate (AMPS)-oxalic acid-allypolyethoxy carboxylate (APEM) was specially designed and synthesized from allyloxy polyethoxy ether (APEG) to inhibit the precipitation of CaCO3 and CaSO4. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR and H1-NMR. Using the static experiment method, the scale inhibition efficiencies for CaCO3 and CaSO4 scale were investigated. It was shown that AA-AMPS-APEM exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals scales, with approximately 97.1% CaSO4 inhibition and displayed significant ability to prevent the formation of CaCO3 scales. The synthesized AA-AMPS-APEM was also compared with that of current commercial inhibitors. The effect of the copolymer addition on the crystals of CaCO3 and CaSO4 scales morphology and structures were examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). It proved that great changes in the size and morphology of the calcium scales took place under the influence of AA-AMPS-APEM. The proposed inhibition mechanism suggests the formation of complexes between the side-chain carboxyl groups of AA-AMPS-APEM and calcium ions on the surface of inorganic minerals, and the excellent solubility of complexes resulted from a number of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sulfonic group (-SO3H) group. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Cao K.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Liu G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

A polyether-based copolymer of acrylic acid-allylpolyethoxy maleic carboxylate (AA-APEY) was prepared by copolymerization of allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEY) and acrylic acid (AA) at different mole ratios. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of AA-to-APEY mole ratios on the copolymer properties and scale inhibition performance for gypsum. The synthesized copolymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and further conformed by 1H NMR. The effect of AA-APEY on controlling calcium sulfate deposits was studied through static scale inhibition tests under standard solution conditions. And the result was compared with that of other polycarboxylates, which are similar to AA-APEY in structure. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out to study the morphology and structure changes of calcium sulfate crystals in the presence of AA-APEY. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Bu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2015

The polymeric scale inhibition and dispersion agents (PAYS) were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid, allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEY) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid by using ammonium persulfate as a radical initiator in aqueous solution, among which APEY was synthesized in laboratory. Structure of PAYS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Experimental data showed that the terpolymer was a high-efficient chelate sorbent, and it exhibited excellent ability for calcium orthophosphate, with approximately 96% efficiency at the dosage of 4 mg/L, as well as high efficiency toward barium sulfate scales nearly 80% inhibition. The effectiveness of PAYS depends on the agent concentration, temperature and the ratio of the reactant. The formation of Ca3(PO4)2 and BaSO4 precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It appeared that the crystal shape, size, and the morphology of scale changed apparently at the dosage of 4 and 15 mg/L, respectively. In addition, it has good effect on controlling iron (III) scaling. This study was also devoted to the understanding of the action mechanism of these inhibitors in suppressing the crystal nucleus formation and preventing the crystal growth. Based on the contrast experiment of scale formation, the supposing mechanism diagram was also delineated and analyzed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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