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Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2015

This study focuses on the effect of a water-soluble copolymer, acrylic acid–oxalic acid–allylpolyethoxy carboxylate–8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (pyranine) (AA–APEM–APTA). APEM and APTA were copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) to synthesize APTA tagged no phosphate and nitrogen-free calcium sulfate inhibitor AA–APEM–APTA. Structures of AA–APEM–APTA were evaluated by FT-IR and 1H-NMR, and oxalic acid, APEG and APEM by C13-NMR. The observation shows that the dosage of AA–APEM–APTA plays an important role in CaSO4 inhibition. The performance of copolymer on inhibition of CaSO4 precipitation was compared with that of current commercial inhibitors. It was shown that the copolymer exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 96 % CaSO4 inhibition. The relationship between AA–APEM–APTA’s fluorescent intensity and its dosage was studied. The correlation coefficient R2 of AA–APEM–APTA is 0.9999. The effect on formation of CaSO4 was investigated with a combination of scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis. AA–APEM–APTA can be used safely in cooling water systems. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

In this paper, a new double hydrophilic and environment-friendly polyether copolymer inhibitor, polyethylene glycol double-ester of maleic anhydride-acrylic acid (PEGDMA-AA), was synthesized to inhibit the precipitation of calcium carbonate and Fe(III) scales. Structures of PEG, PEGDMA, and PEGDMA-AA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR). The influence of PEGDMA-AA dosage and mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) toward CaCO3 and Fe scale were tested through static jar scale inhibition and dispersion tests. The optimal mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) was 1:1 for calcium carbonate inhibition and 1:2 for dispersing Fe(III), respectively. Investigation of influence of solution properties on CaCO3 inhibition was also carried out and dispersion ability for Fe(III) was compared with commercial inhibitors. The effect of PEGDMA-AA on the morphology, size, and crystal form of CaCO3 particles were examined through scanning electron microscopic, transmission electron microscope, X-ray powder diffraction, and FTIR. One supposed mechanism (core-shell structure) was also described in detail. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Bu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Novel double-hydrophilic block copolymers, acrylic acid (AA)-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulfonate (AMPS)-oxalic acid-allypolyethoxy carboxylate (APEM) was specially designed and synthesized from allyloxy polyethoxy ether (APEG) to inhibit the precipitation of CaCO3 and CaSO4. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR and H1-NMR. Using the static experiment method, the scale inhibition efficiencies for CaCO3 and CaSO4 scale were investigated. It was shown that AA-AMPS-APEM exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals scales, with approximately 97.1% CaSO4 inhibition and displayed significant ability to prevent the formation of CaCO3 scales. The synthesized AA-AMPS-APEM was also compared with that of current commercial inhibitors. The effect of the copolymer addition on the crystals of CaCO3 and CaSO4 scales morphology and structures were examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). It proved that great changes in the size and morphology of the calcium scales took place under the influence of AA-AMPS-APEM. The proposed inhibition mechanism suggests the formation of complexes between the side-chain carboxyl groups of AA-AMPS-APEM and calcium ions on the surface of inorganic minerals, and the excellent solubility of complexes resulted from a number of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sulfonic group (-SO3H) group. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Liu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

Abstract: In this paper, a new double hydrophilic and environment-friendly polyether copolymer inhibitor, polyethylene glycol double-ester of maleic anhydride—acrylic acid (PEGDMA-AA), was synthesized to inhibit the precipitation of calcium carbonate and Fe(III) scales. Structures of PEG, PEGDMA, and PEGDMA-AA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR). The influence of PEGDMA-AA dosage and mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) toward CaCO3 and Fe scale were tested through static jar scale inhibition and dispersion tests. The optimal mass ratio (PEGDMA: AA) was 1:1 for calcium carbonate inhibition and 1:2 for dispersing Fe(III), respectively. Investigation of influence of solution properties on CaCO3 inhibition was also carried out and dispersion ability for Fe(III) was compared with commercial inhibitors. The effect of PEGDMA-AA on the morphology, size, and crystal form of CaCO3 particles were examined through scanning electron microscopic, transmission electron microscope, X-ray powder diffraction, and FTIR. One supposed mechanism (core–shell structure) was also described in detail. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Bu Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Chen Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2015

The polymeric scale inhibition and dispersion agents (PAYS) were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid, allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEY) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid by using ammonium persulfate as a radical initiator in aqueous solution, among which APEY was synthesized in laboratory. Structure of PAYS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Experimental data showed that the terpolymer was a high-efficient chelate sorbent, and it exhibited excellent ability for calcium orthophosphate, with approximately 96% efficiency at the dosage of 4 mg/L, as well as high efficiency toward barium sulfate scales nearly 80% inhibition. The effectiveness of PAYS depends on the agent concentration, temperature and the ratio of the reactant. The formation of Ca3(PO4)2 and BaSO4 precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It appeared that the crystal shape, size, and the morphology of scale changed apparently at the dosage of 4 and 15 mg/L, respectively. In addition, it has good effect on controlling iron (III) scaling. This study was also devoted to the understanding of the action mechanism of these inhibitors in suppressing the crystal nucleus formation and preventing the crystal growth. Based on the contrast experiment of scale formation, the supposing mechanism diagram was also delineated and analyzed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ma S.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 2 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2014

A novel fluorescent-tagged scale inhibitor, maleic anhydride-oxalic acid-allypolyethoxy carboxylate-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (pyranine) (MA-APEM-APTA) was synthesized by maleic anhydride (MA), oxalic acid-allypolyethoxy carboxylate (APEM) and 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (APTA). Structures of APTA, APEM, and MA-APEM-APTA were carried out by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The observation shows that the dosage of MA-APEM-APTA plays an important role on CaCO3 inhibition. It can be concluded that the order of preventing the precipitation from flask tests was MA-APEM>MA-APEM-APTA>T-225>PESA>PAA≈HPMA. Relationship between MA-APEM-APTA's fluorescent intensity and its dosage was studied. Correlation coefficient R2 of MA-APEM-APTA's is 0.9973. The effect on formation of CaCO3 was investigated with combination of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR analysis. MA-APEM-APTA can be used to accurately measure copolymer consumption on line besides providing excellent CaCO3. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Liu G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Huang J.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 7 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2012

Formation of mineral scales of carbonate and sulfate poses significant problems in cooling water systems. For the control of carbonate and sulfate scales and in response to environmental guidelines, a novel phosphorus-free and non-nitrogen double-hydrophilic block copolymer (AL) was synthesized. The anti-scale property of the AL copolymer towards CaCO 3 and CaSO 4 in the artificial cooling water was studied through static scale inhibition tests. The observation shows that the dosage of AL plays an important role on CaCO 3 and CaSO 4 inhibition. The effect on formation of CaCO 3 and CaSO 4 was investigated with combination of scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis, respectively. Inhibition mechanism is proposed that the interactions between calcium and polyethylene glycol are the fundamental impetus to restrain the formation of the scale in cooling water systems. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Liu G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Huang J.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Yao Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 6 more authors.
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2012

A novel environmentally friendly type of calcium carbonate and iron(III) scale inhibitor (ALn) was synthesized. The anti-scale property of the Acrylic acid-allylpolyethoxy carboxylate copolymer (AA-APELn or ALn) towards CaCO 3 and iron(III) in the artificial cooling water was studied through static scale inhibition tests. The observation shows that both calcium carbonate and iron(III) inhibition increase with increasing the degree of polymerization of ALn from 5 to 15, and the dosage of ALn plays an important role on calcium carbonate and iron(III)-inhibition. The effect on formation of CaCO 3 was investigated with a combination of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The results showed that the ALn copolymer not only influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology and crystal size but also the crystallinity. The crystallization of CaCO 3 in the absence of inhibitor was rhombohedral calcite crystal, whereas a mixture of calcite with vaterite crystals was found in the presence of the ALn copolymer. Inhibition mechanism is proposed that the interactions between calcium or iron ions and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the fundamental impetus to restrain the formation of the scale in cooling water systems. © Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich.


Ling L.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory | Huang J.,Nanjing Southeast University | And 6 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2012

In an attempt to control Ca3(PO4)2, CaCO3, and CaSO4 deposits in industrial recycling water systems, an acrylic acid (AA)-allyloxy poly(ethylene glycol) polyglycerol carboxylate (APEG-PG-COOH) copolymer was synthesized as a nonphosphorus inhibitor. The synthesized polymer was characterized by 1H NMR. The performance of PAA/APEG-PG-COOH on inhibition of Ca3(PO4)2, CaCO3 and CaSO4 precipitation was studied through static scale inhibition tests. It was shown that PAA/APEG-PG-COOH exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 100% CaSO4 inhibition and 99.89% Ca3(PO4)2 inhibition at levels of 3 and 6mg/L PAA/APEG-PG-COOH, respectively. PAA/APEG-PG-COOH also displayed ability to prevent the formation of CaCO3 scales. The effects on formation of Ca3(PO4)2, CaCO3 and CaSO4 were investigated with combination of Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Cao K.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Liu G.,Nanjing Southeast University | Wang H.,Nanjing Southeast University | Sun W.,Jianghai Environmental Protection Co.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

A polyether-based copolymer of acrylic acid-allylpolyethoxy maleic carboxylate (AA-APEY) was prepared by copolymerization of allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEY) and acrylic acid (AA) at different mole ratios. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of AA-to-APEY mole ratios on the copolymer properties and scale inhibition performance for gypsum. The synthesized copolymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and further conformed by 1H NMR. The effect of AA-APEY on controlling calcium sulfate deposits was studied through static scale inhibition tests under standard solution conditions. And the result was compared with that of other polycarboxylates, which are similar to AA-APEY in structure. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out to study the morphology and structure changes of calcium sulfate crystals in the presence of AA-APEY. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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