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Palumbo N.F.,JHU Whiting Schools Engineering for Professionals Program | Blauwkamp R.A.,Navigation and Control Group
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2010

Classically derived homing guidance laws, such as proportional navigation, can be highly effective when the homing missile has significantly more maneuver capability than the threat. As threats become more capable, however, higher performance is required from the missile guidance law to achieve intercept. To address this challenge, most modern guidance laws are derived using linear-quadratic optimal control theory to obtain analytic feedback solutions. Generally, optimal control strategies use a cost function to explicitly optimize the missile performance criteria. In addition, it is typical for these guidance laws to employ more sophisticated models of the target and missile maneuver capability in an effort to improve overall performance. In this article, we will present a review of optimal control theory and derive a number of optimal guidance laws of increasing complexity. We also will explore the advantages that such guidance laws have over proportional navigation when engaging more stressing threats. Source


Palumbo N.F.,JHU Whiting Schools Engineering for Professionals Program | Harrison G.A.,Navigation and Control Group | Blauwkamp R.A.,Navigation and Control Group | Marquart J.K.,Navigation and Control Group
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2010

When designing missile guidance laws, all of the states necessary to mechanize the implementation are assumed to be directly available for feedback to the guidance law and uncorrupted by noise. In practice, however, this is not the case. The separation theorem states that the solution to this problem separates into the optimal deterministic controller driven by the output of an optimal state estimator. Thus, this article serves as a companion to our other article in this issue, "Modern Homing Missile Guidance Theory and Techniques," wherein optimal guidance laws are discussed and the aforementioned assumptions hold. Here, we briefly discuss the general nonlinear filtering problem and then turn our focus to the linear and extended Kalman filtering approaches; both are popular filtering methodologies for homing guidance applications. Source


Palumbo N.F.,JHU Whiting Schools Engineering for Professionals Program
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2010

Homing missiles have played an increasingly important role in warfare since the end of World War II. In contrast to inertially guided long-range ballistic missiles, homing missiles guide themselves to intercept targets that can maneuver unpredictably, such as enemy aircraft or anti-ship cruise missiles. Intercepting such threats requires an ability to sense the target location in real time and respond rapidly to changes so that a target intercept can occur. Homing guidance, wherein an onboard sensor provides the target data on which guidance decisions are based, is used to accomplish this intercept. Because of the continually improving quality of target information as the missile closes in, homing guidance provides intercept accuracy that is unsurpassed by any other form of missile guidance. This article serves as the introduction to this Technical Digest issue on homing missile guidance and control. A number of basic concepts related to guided missiles are introduced in this article to provide the foundational concepts for the subsequent articles. Finally, the flight control and homing guidance concepts that are employed in such systems are discussed in the later articles in this issue. Source


Palumbo N.F.,JHU Whiting Schools Engineering for Professionals Program | Blauwkamp R.A.,Navigation and Control Group
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2010

This article provides a conceptual foundation with respect to homing guidance upon which the next several articles are anchored. To this end, a basic geometric and notational framework is first established. Then, the well-known and often-used proportional navigation guidance concept is developed. The mechanization of proportional navigation in guided missiles depends on several factors, including the types of inertial and target sensors available on board the missile. Within this context, the line-of-sight reconstruction process (the collection and orchestration of the inertial and target sensor measurements necessary to support homing guidance) is discussed. Also, guided missiles typically have no direct control over longitudinal acceleration, and they maneuver in the direction specified by the guidance law by producing acceleration normal to the missile body. Therefore, we discuss a guidance command preservation technique that addresses this lack of control. The key challenges associated with designing effective homing guidance systems are discussed, followed by a cursory discussion of midcourse guidance for completeness' sake. Source

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