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Singh V.K.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Champati Ray P.K.,Indian Institute of Remote Sensing | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2010

Space-borne SAR interferometry is one possible method for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). The major advantages of radar image pairs over other sources are worldwide availability of satellite data and all weather and day/night image acquisition capabilities. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique makes use of phase difference information extracted from two complex valued SAR images acquired from different orbit positions. This information is useful in measuring several geophysical quantities such as topography, slope, deformation (volcanoes, earthquakes, ice fields), glacier studies, vegetation growth etc. With increase in no. of SAR sensors in orbit, In-SAR technique is rapidly gaining importance in remote sensing of planet earth. The sensitivity of this technique depends strongly on system parameters, such as the time interval between the observations used and the spatial baseline. Longer time intervals are less suited because of temporal decorrelation of the signal. Longer spatial baselines result in increased height sensitivity. In this research, two pairs of ERS-1/2 tandem SAR images of Garhwal Himalaya in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand were used for InSAR DEM generation. InSAR processing with and without applying GCPs was performed for comparison purposes. The InSAR DEM was registered and aligned to SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) 3 Arc Second data, a global reference DEM. The "truth" DEM used for accuracy evaluation is a higher accuracy. © 2010 Cafet-Innova Technical Society.

Panda S.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Banerjee K.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Jain M.K.,Indian School of Mines | Shaw S.K.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2015

Nepal is known as a small mountainous landlocked country of South Asia. Nepal is situated at the interplate seismicity zone of Indian subcontinent and Eurasia plate. The Indian subcontinent is confined to its northern margins and is attributed to the collision of India and Eurasia plates. The Indian plate is subducting about 3 cm per year. Due to movement of the plates, different types of hazard or earthquake happened. Recently large to moderate-sized earthquakes have occurred along the Himalayan plate boundary near Nepal at 25th April, 2015. The Indian plate is subducting about 3 m and Himalayan mountain height increase 1, this year (measure after earthquake: April, 2015). According to USGS the epicentral magnitude was 7.8. This earthquake occurred as the result of thrust faulting near the main frontal thrust between the subducting Indian subcontinent plate and overriding Eurasian plate. Three earthquakes and more than 200 aftershocks have been occurred at Nepal. Economical, Social, Environmental etc, hazards not only depend on frequently earthquake or Earthquake magnitude also depends on Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of rocks. The main aim of this paper is to present the distribution of bed rock PGA and damage intensity (by Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) at Bagmati area, Nepal. Maximum PGA (after Joyner & Boore’s) is observed at west of Gorkha area, with the value of 0.87 units which is fall into XI class of MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and the minimum Peak Ground Acceleration is obtained for southwest Dolkha area. © 2015 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.

Kumar A.,Central University of Jharkhand | Pandey A.C.,Birla Institute of Technology | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
Geocarto International | Year: 2012

This study demonstrates the use of high resolution WorldView-II satellite data in extraction of built-up land and vegetation using normalized index techniques. The PCA 1 and NIR 2 bands-based built-up index was proposed for extracting built-up land, which exhibit high accuracy. The normalized difference vegetation index based on Red Edge and NIR 2 bands of WorldView-II produced high accuracy inthe estimation of vegetation compared to the use of Red and NIR bands. The grid technique used in estimating built-up and vegetation density from precisely classified images provided better and accurate assessment of built-up and vegetation density in heterogeneous landscape of urban areas. This shows areas of very high to high built-up density are located in the central, western and southern parts, which are primarily devoid of vegetation. This study indicates possibilities of utilizing high resolution satellite data in urban landscape characterization using a grid-based technique. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Pandey A.C.,Birla Institute of Technology | Kumar A.,Central University of Jharkhand | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

In the present study, the Cartosat-I digital elevation model (DEM) was utilized to deduce the vertical characteristics of Ranchi urban area and its relation to long term built-up expansion (1927-2010). The DEM represents moderate variation in terrain relief ranging from 595 m to 754 m with majority of area exhibiting upto 3° of slope and 3° to 6° indicating flat to undulating nature of terrain in Ranchi township. The DEM was used to generate location of sinks within urban area, which are generally delineated along the drainage channels, adjacent to high-rise built-up land and along the elevated road network. The pattern of urban sprawl over the eight decades (1927-2010) were examined with reference to terrain relief zones, which indicated that the built-up growth was mainly taken place over the elevation range of moderate (620-660 m) (67. 0%) and high relief (660-680 m) (19. 8%) zones. Although earlier preference for built-up development was more in high elevation zones (660-680 m), the low elevation zones (<600-620 m) are now preferred for multistoried built-up land development where better groundwater availability occur. The spatial pattern of vertical growth of built-up land was assessed using contour density obtained from Cartosat-I DEM. The results show that the high density contours predominately correspond to hilly area and high-rise buildings at majority of locations. The urban sprawl pattern and population trend exhibited rapid increase in vertical built-up growth after 1996 indicating beginning of urban densification in Ranchi township. © 2012 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

Kumar A.,Jharkhand Education Project Council | Pandey A.C.,Birla Institute of Technology | Hoda N.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

The present study analyzes the built-up expansion of Ranchi urban agglomeration over a period of about 8 decades from 1927-2005. Satellite images and topographical maps were used to evaluate land use dynamics during these periods. Built-up growth of 473.7% during 1927-2005 was primarily at the expense of agricultural land along with reduction of natural water bodies reflects negative impacts of built-up expansion, which increased many folds in recent decades. The built-up growth is also analyzed with reference to population growth, land consumption rate and land transformation. The land loss due to increasing built-up growth of Ranchi were compared with other capital regions and cities along with population increase to provide insight into the possible scenario of built-up expansion in Ranchi urban area. © 2011 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

Kumar A.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Pandey A.C.,Birla Institute of Technology | Hoda N.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Applications Center
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

The patterns of urban sprawl over a 20-year period presented in the study indicate unplanned development in the urban agglomerations of Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad. The visual interpretation of Landsat (1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001) and IRS-P6 (2005) was used to map land use/land cover and analyse urban sprawl. The saturation of urban areas within municipal limits, along with pressure from the growing population, resulted in the densification of the core urban areas within Dhanbad and Jamshedpur. Comparatively, Ranchi exhibited a very high rate of built-up growth with a reducing population density, indicating a low density of built-up development. The development of built-up land at the expense of agricultural land in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration indicates poor land-transformation practices. An area of 103.6 km 2 (165.66% growth) was transformed to built-up land in these cities during 1986-2005. Any future built-up development of these agglomerations should involve the use of the government city development plan. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

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