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Saxena R.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Das M.K.,IDVC Project Field Unit | Nagpal B.N.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Srivastava A.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2014

Background & objectives: Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand state is endemic for malaria, particularly the Bundu Primary Health Centre (PHC) is the worst affected. Therefore, a study was initiated during 2009 using remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) to identify risk factors responsible for high endemicity in this PHC.Methods: Bundu and Angara in Ranchi district were identified as high and low malaria endemic PHCs based on epidemiological data of three years (2007–09). The habitation, streams, other water body, landform, PHC and village boundary thematic maps were prepared using IRS-P6/LISS III-IV imageries and macro level breeding sites were identified. Digital elevation model (DEM) of the PHCs was generated using Cartosat Stereo Pair images and from DEM, slope map was derived to calculate flat area. From slope, aspect map was derived to indicate direction of water flow. Length of perennial streams, area under rocky terrain and buffer zones of 250, 500 and 750 m were constructed around streams. High resolution remote sensing imageries were used to identify micro level breeding sites. Based on macro-micro breeding sites, six villages from each PHC were selected randomly having combination of different parameters representing all ecotypes. Entomological data were collected during 2010–11 in pre- and post-monsoon seasons following standard techniques and analyzed statistically. Differential analysis was attempted to comprehend socioeconomic and other determinants associated with malaria transmission.Results: The study identified eight risk factors responsible for higher malaria endemicity in Bundu in comparison to Angara PHC based on ecological, entomological, socioeconomic and other local parameters.Conclusion: Focused interventions in integrated vector management (IVM) mode are required to be carried out in the district for better management and control of disease. © 2014 Malaria Research Center. All Rights reserved.


Saxena R.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Nagpal B.N.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Das M.K.,IDVC Project Field Unit Under National Institute of Malaria Research | Srivastava A.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

Background & objectives: The presence of efficient malaria vectors namely Anopeles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. annularis (Diptera: Culicidae), rapid industrialization causing large influx of population and poor health infrastructure are some of the factors that make malaria an important public health problem in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand State, India. A geographical information system (GIS) based retrospective study using spatial statistical tools was initiated in 328 subcentres of 14 primary health centres (PHCs) of the district using malaria epidemiological data of three years (2007-2009) to identify spatial distribution pattern of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) occurrence, delineation of hot spots and to map directional distribution trend of Pf spread to help formulate evidence-based policy and to prioritize control during 2011. Methods: Spatial statistics tools like Global Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* and Standard Deviational Ellipse were used in GIS domain for analysis. Results: Spatial distribution pattern of Pv occurrence was found random while Pf distribution was significantly clustered. During 2007-2009, the number of subcentres under Pf hot spot category exhibited downward trend while high Pf risk subcentres exhibited upward trend. One consistent Pf hot spot consisting of five subcentres was identified in Silli PHC. During 2009, one Pf hot spot consisting of 20 subcentres and 18 subcentres under high Pf risk category were identified in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs. A shifting trend in Pf spread was noticed from north-west to western direction from 2008 onwards. Interpretation & conclusions: The study recommended priority control in 20 Pf hot spot and 18 high Pf risk reporting subcentres including five consistent Pf hot spot subcentres in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs during 2011 to address grave malaria situation in the district in a cost-effective manner.


Guha A.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | Singh V.K.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Parveen R.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Kumar K.V.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2012

Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sharma R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Chaudhry S.,Kurukshetra University | Kudrat M.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Tiwari A.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2012

Vegetation and landuse mapping was carried out in the Kumaun Himalayan region, covering 21,034 km2 area, with the help of multi-season AWiFS data of IRS-P6. Different vegetation and landuse categories were identified using a hybrid approach of classification including unsupervised, supervised and contextual refinement techniques. 41% of the total area was occupied by vegetation with a dominance of pine forest spread in an area of 1982.74 km 2 (23% of total forest area). SRTM DEM was used for post classification refinements. Classified map was assessed for accuracy, and an overall accuracy of 92% was obtained. Distribution of different vegetation types was also analyzed with respect to different topographic variables in the study area. Maximum area with vegetation was observed in mid elevation zone in comparison to other altitude zones. In different categories maximum distribution of forest area was under low followed by mid and higher slope categories. Southern aspect was observed with maximum forest area. © 2012 IJED.


Bijalwan A.,Allahabad University | Swamy S.L.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University | Sharma C.M.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Sharma N.K.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Tiwari A.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Service Center
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to characterize the land use, biomass and carbon status of dry tropical forest in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh, India using satellite remote sensing data and GIS techniques in the year of 2001-2002. The main forest types observed in the area are Teak forest, mixed forest, degraded forest and Sal mixed forest. The aspect and slope of the sites influenced the forest vegetation types, biomass and carbon storage in the different forests. The standing volume, above ground biomass and carbon storage varied from 35.59 to 64.31 m3·ha-1, 45.94 to 78.31 Mg·ha-1, and 22.97 to 33.27 Mg·ha-1, respectively among different forest types. The highest volumes, above ground biomass and carbon storage per hectare were found in the mixed forest and lowest in the degraded forest. The total standing carbon present in the entire study area was 78170.72 Mg in mixed forest, 81656.91 Mg in Teak forest, 7833.23 Mg in degraded forest and 7470.45 Mg in Sal mixed forest, respectively. The study shows that dry tropical forests of the studied area in Chhattisgarh are in growing stage and have strong potential for carbon sequestration. © 2010 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sinha P.N.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Patel N.,Birla Institute of Technology | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Singh V.K.,Jharkhand Space Application Center
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Urbanization incepts serious challenges of growth and its management. The issues of urbanization manifest in the form of overcrowding, congestion, insufficient infrastructure, inadequate service provisioning, environmental degradation, pollution etc and affect the socioeconomic development of the city. Ranchi, the capital of newly formed state of Jharkhand (India) has been witnessing the same scenario; raising the question of its planning and management of growth to make it more efficient and sustainable. It hoists the necessity to study the pattern of urbanization and its impact on other landuse/landcover categories in Ranchi city. In order to assess the urbanization pattern and spatio-temporal dynamics in the study area, the changing pattern of the three significant patch parameters viz. patch frequency, largest patch size and average patch size of all affected landuse/landcover categories over a time gradient representing the pre-capital and post-capital formation phases of the Ranchi city have been analyzed. The two conventional landscape indices viz. Shannon's diversity Index and Simpson's diversity index and a newly developed index 'Normalized Patch size Range Index' have been employed in the analyses which not only ascertained the finding derived but also provided meaningful insights pertaining to the spatio-temporal urban landscape dynamics prevailing in the Ranchi city. © 2011 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.


Vinod K.V.H.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Singh V.K.,Jharkhand Space Application Center | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Jharkhand Space Application Center
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2010

Integrated watershed development approach is considered to be the most ideal for optimum utilization of land and water resources, as it helps in maintaining the ecological balance. The burgeoning population and resultant pressure on natural resources for food, fiber, fodders and consequent infrastructure facilities have given rise to competing and conflicting demands on finite land and water resources. The morphometric analysis/ morphometric index and sediment yield index is a significant tool for prioritization of micro watershed even without considering soil map. In the present paper An integral part of Upper Subarnarekha watershed (with an area of 594.68 km2) was studied for priority watershed delineation with the objective of selecting watersheds to undertake soil and water conservation measures using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Using the terrain information derived from geocoded satellite data and 1:50,000 topographic maps, 57 micro watersheds were assessed on the basis of their erosivity and sediment-yield index values. Thematic maps of landform, land use and land-cover, and slope were digitized using ARC/INFO. On the basis of sediment yield index values the watersheds were grouped into very high, high, moderate and low priorities. High priority watersheds with very high SYI value (>80) need immediate attention for soil and water conservation measures whereas, low priority watershed having good vegetative cover and low SYI value (<19) may not need immediate attention for such treatments. © 2010 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.

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