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Hasselt, Belgium

Bervoets L.,Hasselt University | Massa G.,Jessa Hospital
Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2014

Background: Studies have reported that children who are obese are becoming more severely obese. Objective: We aimed to classify obese children based on age- and gender-specific centile curves passing through body mass index (BMI) 30, 35 and 40 at age 18 as 'class I', 'class II' or severe, and 'class III' or morbid obesity. Methods: In addition to the International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs corresponding to BMI 30 and 35, we calculated the BMI cut-offs corresponding to BMI 40 using the LMS method proposed by Cole and Lobstein. We classified 217 obese children according to these criteria. Results: Fifty-six (25.8%) children had class III obesity, 73 (33.6%) class II obesity and 88 (40.6%) class I obesity. Class III obese children had a higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and fasting insulinaemia compared with less obese children. Conclusion: It is clinically important to classify obese children in different classes of obesity severity. © 2014 The Authors Pediatric Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source


Han S.N.,University Hospitals Leuven | Lotgerink A.,Jessa Hospital | Gziri M.M.,University Hospitals Leuven | Van Calsteren K.,University Hospitals Leuven | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Recent insights provide support for the treatment of cancer during pregnancy, a coincidence that poses both mother and fetus at risk. Our aim was to critically review studies on the physiologic variations during pregnancy, the most common tumor markers used in diagnosis and follow-up of gynecological cancers.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of six tumor markers during normal pregnancy: carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3 (breast cancer); squamous cell carcinoma antigen (cervical cancer); and CA 125, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B and lactate dehydrogenase (ovarian cancer).Results: For CA 15-3, 3.3% to 20.0% of all measurements were above the cut-off (maximum 56 U/mL in the third trimester). Squamous cell carcinoma antigen values were above cut-off in 3.1% and 10.5% of the measurements (maximum 4.3 μg/L in the third trimester). Up to 35% of CA 125 levels were above cut-off: levels were highest in the first trimester, with a maximum value up to 550 U/mL. Inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels were not elevated in maternal serum during normal pregnancy.Conclusion: During normal pregnancy, tumor markers including CA 15.3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen and CA 125 can be elevated; inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels remain below normal cut-off values. Knowledge of physiological variations during pregnancy can be clinically important when managing gynecological cancers in pregnant patients. © 2012 Han et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Hansen D.,Heart Center Hasselt | Hansen D.,Hasselt University | Meeusen R.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Mullens A.,Jessa Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

In subjects with obesity, the implementation of long-term exercise intervention increases lean tissue mass and lowers adipose tissue mass. However, data indicate a blunted lipolytic response, andor skeletal muscle protein synthesis, when subjects with obesity are exposed to acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. Therefore, subjects with obesity seem to display a suboptimal physiological response to acute exercise stimuli. It might be hypothesized that hormonal disturbances contribute, at least in part, to these abnormal physiological reactions in the obese. This review discusses the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis andor skeletal muscle protein synthesis (insulin, norepinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, triiodothyronine, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1), as well as the impact of long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention on these hormonal responses to acute endurance and resistance exercise. In the obese, some endocrinological disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise have been identified: a blunted blood growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide and epinephrine release, and greater cortisol and insulin release. These hormonal disturbances might contribute to a suppressed lipolytic response, andor suppressed skeletal muscle protein synthesis, as a result of acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. In subjects with obesity, the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on other endocrine hormones (norepinephrine, testosterone, triiodothyronine, insulin-like growth factor-1) remains elusive. Furthermore, whether long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention might reverse these hormonal disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise in these individuals remains unknown. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved. Source


Braeckman T.,University of Antwerp | Van Herck K.,University of Antwerp | Van Herck K.,Ghent University | Raes M.,Jessa Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011

Background: The current Belgian experience with rotavirus vaccination provides a unique perspective to look at the effect of vaccination. Shortly after introduction, a nation-wide recommendation was issued and despite the fact that both rotavirus vaccines are offered through partial reimbursement, vaccine uptake has already reached a high level (at least 90%). Methods: For the purpose of looking at the effectiveness of the Belgian rotavirus vaccination policy, 3 years after introduction, we retrospectively collated the publicly available data on the number of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases reported to a national network of sentinel laboratories during 1999 to 2010 and compared them with the available data on hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. Results: Both data sources (reported laboratory-diagnosed cases to a sentinel network as well as data on hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis) show a decrease in the number of rotavirus infections and a 4- to 6-week delay in the onset of disease and the peak of incidence in the postvaccination period. Conclusions: Because this decline coincides with the increased vaccine uptake and is sustained during consecutive rotavirus seasons, the effect is mainly attributed to the rotavirus vaccination. The rapid increase in vaccine coverage, despite the partial reimbursement for the vaccines, is remarkable. Continued postlicensure surveillance is necessary to further investigate the effectiveness of the vaccines and to document the public health impact of the vaccination in reducing disease burden. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Albersen M.,University Hospitals Leuven | Linsen L.,Hasselt University | Tinel H.,Bayer AG | Sandner P.,Bayer AG | Van Renterghem K.,Jessa Hospital
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction.: Overall efficacy rates of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-i) for erectile dysfunction (ED) are 60-70%. PDE5-i treatment failures currently have to resort to invasive treatment options for restoration of erectile function. Aims.: To assess changes in the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase (PKG) pathway in human corpus cavernosum (HCC) of PDE5-i nonresponders compared with healthy controls. To evaluate the effects of BAY 60-4552, a stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and vardenafil on relaxation of HCC strips from PDE5-i nonresponders. Main Outcome Measures.: mRNA expression, morphological localization of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, and relaxant capacity of both compounds alone or combined. Analysis of variance, t-test or Mann-Whitney test based upon number of groups and normality of data. Methods.: HCC tissues were harvested after consent from individuals undergoing penile prosthesis implantation (patients) and potent patients undergoing transurethral surgery (healthy controls, needle biopsy). HCC tissues of patients were compared with those of healthy controls for the expression of mRNA coding for PDE5A, eNOS, PKGα1, PKG2, sGCα1, sGCα2, sGCβ1, sGCβ2, α-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) and β-actin by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The respective proteins were localized using immunofluorescence. Tissue strips of patients were precontracted with phenylepinephrine followed by incubation with 1μM of either vardenafil or BAY 60-4552, or both simultaneously. Results.: The main targets in the NO/cGMP/sGC pathway were downregulated in PDE5-i nonresponders. The pathway was morphologically located to HCC smooth muscle, of which the overall content was preserved in ED patients based on aSMA expression. BAY 60-4552 and vardenafil have synergistic effects on relaxation of HCC of PDE5-i nonresponders. The main limitation is the small amount of control tissue precluding functional testing on these samples. Conclusion.: Despite downregulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, combining BAY 60-4552 with vardenafil significantly enhanced relaxation HCC strips of PDE5-i nonresponders. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Source

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