Jerome, ID, United States
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Anand S.,South Dakota State University | Singh D.,South Dakota State University | Singh D.,Jerome Cheese Company | Avadhanula M.,South Dakota State University | Marka S.,South Dakota State University
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

Membrane fouling is a major operational problem that leads to reduced membrane performance and premature replacement of membranes. Bacterial biofilms developed on reverse osmosis membranes can cause severe flux declines during whey processing. Various types of biological, physical, and chemical factors regulate the formation of biofilms. Extracellular polymeric substances produced by constitutive microflora provide an effective barrier for the embedded cells. Cultural and microscopic techniques also revealed the presence of biofilms with attached bacterial cells on membrane surfaces. Presence of biofilms, despite regular cleaning processes, reflects ineffectiveness of cleaning agents. Cleaning efficiency depends upon factors such as pH of the cleaning agent, temperature, pressure, cleaning agent dose, optimum cleaning time, and cross-flow velocity during cleaning. Among different cleaning agents, surfactants help to prevent bacterial attachment to surfaces by reducing the surface tension of water and interfacial tension between the layers. Enzymes mixed with surfactants and chelating agents can be used to penetrate the biofilm matrix formed by microbes. Recent studies have shown the role of quorum-sensing-based cell-to-cell signaling, which provides communication within bacterial cells to form a mature biofilm, and also the role of applying quorum inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation. Major cleaning applications are also summarized in Table 1. © 2013 [South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD-57006].


Anand S.,South Dakota State University | Singh D.,South Dakota State University | Singh D.,Jerome Cheese Company
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

This experiment evaluates the effectiveness of individual steps of a clean-in-place protocol against the biofilm constitutive microflora isolated from the biofilms developed on whey reverse-osmosis membranes, aged 2 to 14. mo, under industrial processing conditions. The isolates used for the in vitro resistance studies included species of Bacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Aeromonas, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Escherichia. The 6 cleaning steps (alkali, surfactant, acid, enzyme, a second surfactant, and sanitizer treatment) revealed resistance of isolates in both planktonic and biofilm-embedded cell states. The most effective step was the acid treatment, which resulted in 4.54 to 7.90 and 2.09 to 5.02 log reductions of the planktonic and biofilm-embedded cells, respectively. Although the sanitizer step causing a reduction of 4.91 to 8.33 log in the case of planktonic cells, it was less effective against the biofilm-embedded cells, resulting in a reduction of 0.59 to 1.64 log. Bacillus spp. showed the highest resistance in both planktonic, as well as embedded cell states. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

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