Srīperumbūdūr, India
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Rajesh Kumar B.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Fuel | Year: 2015

In this work, the effects of blending n-pentanol, a second generation biofuel with diesel on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder, constant-speed, un-modified, direct-injection diesel engine using four n-pentanol/diesel blends: 10%, 20%, 30% and 45% (by volume). The possibility of using a high pentanol/diesel blend (45%) was also explored with an objective to maximize the renewable fraction in the fuel. Three EGR rates (10%, 20% and 30%) were utilized with an intention to reduce the high nitrogen oxides (NOx) that were prevalent at high engine loads using these blends. Test results showed that increasing EGR rates brought down NOx emissions by up to 41% at medium load and 33.7% at high load. Smoke opacity hardly increased up to 20% EGR rate and beyond that it increased for all blends. It was found that simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke emissions can be achieved using the combination of pentanol/diesel blends and a medium EGR rate (20-30%) with a small drop in performance. Increase in hydrocarbons (HC) and slight increase in carbon-monoxide (CO) emissions were experienced with all blends when compared to diesel fuel under EGR conditions. It was concluded that 45% pentanol/diesel blends can be used in diesel engines without any modifications and without causing any visible damage to the engine parts subject to long-term durability tests. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rajesh Kumar B.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Biofuels have grabbed the attention of engine researchers ever since the oil-crisis and escalating costs of petro-chemicals cropped up in the '70s. Ethanol and methanol were the most widely researched alcohols in IC engines. However, the last decade has witnessed significant amount of research in higher alcohols due to the development of modern fermentation processes using engineered micro-organisms that improved yield. Higher alcohols are attractive second/third generation biofuels that can be produced from sugary, starchy and ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstocks using sustainable pathways. The present work reviews the current literature concerning the effects of using higher alcohols ranging from 3-carbon propanol to 20-carbon phytol on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a wide range of diesel engines under various test conditions. The literature is abound with evidence that higher alcohols reduce carcinogenic particulate emissions that are prevalent in diesel engines. NOx emissions either increased or decreased based on the domination of either cetane number or heat of evaporation. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the engine usually suffered due to low energy content of alcohols. A notable feature is that the combination of higher alcohols (like butanol or pentanol), high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates and late injection timing enabled low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines that can simultaneously reduce smoke and NOx emissions with improved engine efficiency. It can be concluded that higher alcohols reduce smoke emissions with their fuel-borne oxygen; enhance air/fuel mixing by offering long ignition delay and eventually replace fossil diesel (partially or wholly) to enable a clean and efficient combustion in compression-ignition engines. The chief thrust areas include developing mutant strains with higher yield, higher tolerance to toxic inhibition and low-cost substrates for fermentation. Further work is required in stipulating optimum blend-fuel characteristics and ensuring the long-term durability of the engines using these fuels. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rajesh Kumar B.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy | Year: 2016

Iso-butanol is a second generation biofuel that has the potential to improve energy security and mitigate harmful pollutants in reciprocating engines. The present study investigates the effect of iso-butanol addition to diesel fuel on performance and emissions of a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). For this objective, four iso-butanol/diesel blends containing 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were prepared by volume basis and tested in the engine under three EGR rates: 10% to 30% (at increments of 10%) with the combination of two injection timings: 23° and 21° crank angle (CA) before top dead center (bTDC). Experimental results showed that the combination of 30% EGR rate, 40% iso-butanol addition (ISB40) and retarded injection timing by 2° CA bTDC simultaneously reduced NOx emissions from 1284 to 749 ppm and smoke opacity from 20.7% to 1.9% with a slight drop in performance. It was found that higher iso-butanol/diesel blends require higher EGR levels to attain optimum levels of smoke and NOx emissions. Both hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon-monoxide (CO) emissions presented an increasing trend at escalating EGR rates. At retarded injection timing, ISB40 blend presented decreased HC emissions, increased CO emissions with a slight drop in performance compared to its injection at original timing. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Ravi T.,Sathyabama University | Kannan V.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

This paper enumerates the efficient design and analysis of low power CNTFET True single phase clock logic D Flip flop based shift registers. The TSPC D flip flop and shift registers are designed using Stanford University CNTFET model and proposed 10nm CNTFET model with sleepy keeper low power technique. The CNTFET is emerging as a viable replacement to the MOSFET. The transient and power analyses are obtained with operating voltage of 1V and the operating frequency at 1GHz. The simulation results are obtained and the analysis are compared with circuits designed using 32nm MOSFET. The comparison results are indicated that the proposed 10nm CNTFET based design and the low power technique are more efficient in power saving as compared to MOSFET design. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Nandhini A.,Sathyabama University | Kannan V.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2016

Integrator is the basic circuit for measuring magnetic parameters like magnetic flux and magnetic field from the magnetic coil signal. In Nuclear fusion device the integrators are used to find the magnetic measurements which are significant for the long duration (signal > 1 s) device operation. The proposed integrator has been composed of input module, integrator module and processor module. It has been tested for long duration with different input signal. There is no conspicuous drift error has been noticed in the output. © Springer India 2016.

Prakash M.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | KavithaPriya C.J.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2016

The abundance of devices in a communicating network creates the most emerging technology "Internet of Things" (IoT) in which the sensors and actuators combined with the environment around the people and in turn the information is shared across various platforms to improve the common operating picture (COP). The International Organization of Standardization (ISO) stack has created many protocols for enabling the operation of IoT. Protocols such as Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) have been created and designed to improve the energy preservation and with low computing and memory obligations. In this proposal, an exploration of various types of protocols used for implementing in IoT is done and also the performance of protocols such as Packet Loss Ratio, Transmission of Data has been compared and the results have been evaluated. © 2016 ACM.

Arul S.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

This paper presents a new approach for determinations of optimal locations of interline power flow controller (IPFC) using adaptive differential evolution (ADE) under multiline transmission. The main objective is to reduce real power loss, overloading of the lines and bus voltage limit violation. An objective function is formulated for the above objectives and a mathematical model is derived for the objective function. An adaptive proportional integral controller (APIC) is developed for controlling real and reactive power flow. Sensitivity analysis is used to estimate the optimal location of buses. The simulation is carry out using MATLAB for two test cases using an IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus test system. Simulation results indicate that the location and parameters optimized by using ADE minimizing overloaded lines, bus voltage abuse and congestion management. Simulation results obtained for both the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus using proposed method is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The obtained results show that the ADE technique provides good computational efficiency, less cost of congestion removal, low power loss, fast and stable convergence characteristics. © Research India Publications.

Venkata Ramanan M.,Anna University | Yuvarajan D.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Increase in NOx emission is one of the most important drawbacks for using biodiesel as a potential alternative fuel for petroleum diesel. Many studies have been carried out to reduce the NOx emission level in biodiesel. The present work is the result of an attempt wherein ferrofluid is added with rice bran oil methyl ester in the way of analyzing its effects on emission features. Magnetite concentrate is exothermic and is known for its characteristics of releasing copious heat at higher temperatures. Nanofluid using magnetite is synthesized by reacting Iron II (FeCl2) and Iron III (FeCl3) in an aqueous ammonia solution to form Magnetite Fe3O4 (Ferro fluid). Release of heat by magnetite during the combustion process counterbalance the conventional limitations related with biodiesel such as increased delay period, inferior combustion rate and higher NOx emissions etc. Experiments have been conducted with Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester (RBOME) and Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester with addition of Ferrofluid (RBOMEF) and are compared with petroleum diesel. Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester with addition of Ferrofluid has been prepared comprising 98.7% biodiesel (Rice bran oil methyl ester), 1% magnetite based ferrofluid and 0.3% surfactant by volume is used in a CI engine. The experimental analysis reveals a decrease in HC, CO and NOx emissions of 19 ppm, 0.011% volume and 93 ppm respectively. © 2015 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control.

Yuvarajan D.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | Venkata Ramanan M.,Anna University
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Transesterification of fatty acid using the application of ultrasound stirring and microwave irradiation has been used of late for biodiesel production from various vegetable oil and animal fats. However analysis on influence of these techniques on performance, combustion and emission aspects has received little attention. In this work, transesterification of mustard oil with methanol was performed using ultra sound stirring (42 kHz /170 W, 80 W) and microwave irradiation (230v AC, 50 Hz, 900 W). Reaction time, conversion rate, fuel properties, performance, emission and combustion characteristics were compared with conventional transesetrification. Results indicated that Mustard oil methyl ester subjected to ultrasonication and microwave irradiation (MOMESUM) has 5.71% more yield than conventional transesterification process. It was also observed that BTE for MOMESUM is improved by 5.84% with 5.14% reduction in BSFC when compared to MOME. CO, HC, NOx and Smoke emission was found to decrease by 11.39%, 3.81%, 7.99% and 5.3% respectively for MOMESUM. © 2016, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rajesh Kumar B.,Jeppiaar Institute of Technology | Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Fuel | Year: 2016

This study attempts to achieve simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emissions using a combination of low EGR, retarded injection timing and diesel fuel reformulation (with low cetane number alcohols) to enable a partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) mode in DI diesel engine. Two higher alcohol/diesel blends, B40 (40% iso-butanol-60% diesel) and P40 (40% n-pentanol-60% diesel) blends were prepared and tested under the combination of three EGR rates (10%, 20% and 30%) and two injection timings (23° and 21° CA bTDC) at high loads and constant engine speed. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine under these conditions are investigated. Results indicate that B40 gives a longer ignition delay, higher peak pressure and higher premixed heat release rate than P40. B40 has superior EGR tolerance and better influence on NOx-smoke trade-off when compared to P40. At retarded injection timing (21° CA bTDC) and 30% EGR, B40 presented simultaneous reduction of NOx (↓ 41.7%) and smoke (↓ 90.8%) emissions with diesel-like performance while P40 presented simultaneous reduction of NOx (↓ 39.3%) and smoke (↓ 15%) emissions with a small drop in performance. It was found that B40 presented better smoke suppression characteristics than P40. Smoke emissions of both blends increased drastically beyond 30% EGR. HC emissions increased and CO emissions remained low for both blends at all EGR rates. The combination of low EGR, late injection and higher alcohol/diesel blends can achieve partially premixed LTC and reduce smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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