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Lee D.G.,Jeollanamdo Ocean and Fisheries Science Institute | Park M.W.,Southwest Research Institute | Kim B.H.,Southwest Research Institute | Kim H.,Chonnam National University | And 2 more authors.
Micron | Year: 2014

This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6μm×12.2μm. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2μm2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1μm×12.1μm. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5μm×5.5μm. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kim H.,Haetteulnal Co. | You J.,Haetteulnal Co. | Jo Y.,Jeollanamdo Ocean and Fisheries Science Institute | Lee Y.,Jeollanamdo Ocean and Fisheries Science Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated the ability of extracts from Lentinus edodes (LE) and rice with Lentinus edodes myce-lium (LEM) to inhibit diabetes and obesity. Lipid accumulation significantly decreased by 78% and 74% upon treatment with 300 μg/mL of LE and LEM, respectively (p<0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition activity increased by 94% and 99% upon treatment with 300 μg/mL of LE and LEM, respectively. In order to investigate the effect of LE and LEM on diabetes, the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphate 1B (PTP1B) activity from the LE and LEM extracts at various concentrations (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 μg/mL) was assessed. PTP1B activity by treatment with 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL of LE, was inhibited at a rate of 7, 9, and 7% respectively. Also, PTP1B activity from treatment with increasing concentration of LEM led to a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PTP1B activity (p<0.01). LE and LEM were orally administered for 28 days after a high fat diet (HFD). LE and LEM significantly reduced triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. GOT and GPT were not significantly effected. These results indicate that extracts of LE and rice with LEM have potent activities useful in the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Source


Kim H.,Haetteulnal Co. | You J.,Haetteulnal Co. | Jo Y.,Jeollanamdo Ocean and Fisheries Science Institute | Lee Y.,Jeollanamdo Ocean and Fisheries Science Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to examine the ability of extracts from Phellinus linteus (PL) and rice with Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLM) to inhibit obesity and diabetes. The efficacy of PL and PLM were evaluated using Oil Red O staining, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) levels, protein tyrosine phosphate 1B (PTP1B) levels, organ weight, and serum lipid levels. Lipid accumulation significantly decreased by 76% and 59% upon treatment with 300 μg/mL of PL and PLM, respectively (P<0.01). The inhibition of CETP activity increased 99% upon treatment with 300 μg/mL of PL or PLM. Treatment with 3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 μg/mL of PL, changed PTP1B activity by 10, 11, 14, 12, and 18% respectively. Also, treatment with increasing concentrations of PLM led to a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PTP1B activity (P<0.01). PL and PLM were orally administered for 28 days after a high fat diet (HFD). PL significantly (P<0.05) reduced triglyceride and cholesterol levels. In addition, PLM significantly (P<0.05) reduced triglyceride, cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol levels. GOT and GPT were not significantly affected. These results indicate that PL and PLM extracts have potent and useful activities for the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved. Source

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