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Kim J.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim J.H.,Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research JINR | Choi G.N.,Gyeongsang National University | Kwak J.H.,Gyeongsang National University | And 5 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Antioxidant capacities (ABTS radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay), mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory effect, and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induced melanogenesis inhibitory effect of 60% methanol extracts and ethylacetate fractions from chestnut inner skin in B16F10 cells were investigated to inspect whitening effect. Above research showed that 60% methanol extracts and ethylacetate fractions from chestnut inner skin resulted in a dose-dependent manner on in vitro antioxidant effects. Especially, the ethylacetate fractions inhibited enzyme activity of mushroom tyrosinases with an IC50 value of 160 μg/mL. Ethylacetate fractions from chestnut inner skin also decreased cellular melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Expression of tyrosinase showed that ethylacetate fractions from chestnut inner skin significantly decreased cellular melanogenesis. Consequently, these results suggest that chestnut inner skin extracts can be considered for a whitening agent of human skin. © 2012 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Gnanasekaran G.,Chonnam National University | Pan S.,Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research JINR | Jung W.,Chonnam National University | Jeong K.,Chonnam National University | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Guanosine-5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) serves as alarmone in bacterial stringent responses. In this study, an affinity column was constructed by immobilizing ppGpp to NHS-Sepharose for isolating ppGppbinding proteins. A novel ppGpp-binding protein, YjgA, was isolated and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry) coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. YjgA and truncated forms of YjgA were cloned and over-expressed in BL21 (DE3). The binding affinity of YjgA to ppGpp was determined by equilibrium dialysis. The interaction of YjgA with ppGpp was very specific, considering that the dissociation constant of YjgA with ppGpp was measured as 5.2 ± 2.0 μM, while the affinities to GTP and GDP were about 60 and 30 times weaker than ppGpp. Expression of yjgA gene in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR results revealed that yjgA was expressed from early to late stationary phase. The yjgA deletion mutant exhibited decreased cell number at stationary phase compared to parent strain and the overexpression of YjgA increased the cell number. These results suggested that YjgA might stimulate cell division under stationary phase. In most prokaryotic genome, about half of the protein candidates are hypothetical, that are expected to be expressed but there is no experimental report on their functions. The approach utilized in this study may serve as an effective mean to probe the functions of hypothetical proteins. Source


Jeong C.,Nutriplan Co. | Bae D.,Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research JINR | Lim H.,Korea Health Supplements Institute KHSI | Lee M.,Nutriplan Co. | And 2 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2015

In this study, we investigated the relationship between anti-inflammatory mechanisms and the combined ameliorating effects of rose hip powder (RHP) and green tea seed extract (GTSE) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. We confirmed the individual effects of RHP (500 mg/kg bw) and GTSE (50 mg/kg bw) in the OA model. Treatment with the mixture of RHP and GTSE (Mix) resulted in significantly enhanced stance and propulsion times compared to treatment with RHP or GTSE alone. To examine the combined effects of RHP and GTSE in vivo, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were measured. The administration of Mix significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were attenuated to a greater extent after the administration of Mix compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-osteoarthritic effects of RHP, GTSE, and Mix on articular cartilage damage using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in OA in rats. After three weeks of treatment, we observed that the administration of RHP, GTSE, and Mix protected against bone destruction and reduced the number of erosion lacunae, but there was no statistical difference among RHP, GTSE, and Mix. Although additional research is warranted, our results suggest that the biological effects of GTSE were enhanced by RHP supplementation to include anti-inflammatory effects, with the potential ability of offering a benefit to OA patients. © 2014, Korean Society for Integrative Biology. Source


Bae D.,Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research JINR | Bae D.,Chonnam National University | Kim Y.,Chonnam National University | Kim Y.,Korea INS Pharm Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2014

We previously reported that Eriobotrya japonica (EJ) improves the cognitive dysfunction caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide injection. Here, we further examined the possible neuroprotective effects and the combined ameliorating effects of EJ and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) in various in vitro and in vivo models. We confirmed the combined effects of a mixture of 5% ethanol extract from EJ leaves (EJE) and water extract from SM roots (SMW) on Aβ1-42-induced toxicity in an in vitro model. Treatment with the mixture (1:1) of EJ and SM (Mix) produced significantly better protection of cells from Aβ-induced toxicity and more strongly suppressed caspase-3 activity compared to treatment with EJE or SMW alone. Additionally, EJE, SMW, and Mix attenuated CoCl2-induced hypoxic damage and corticosterone-induced impairment in SH-SY5Y cells. To examine the combined effects of EJE and SMW in in vivo models, behavioral performance in the Morris water maze was tested two days after injection of Aβ1-42. Administration of Mix provided significantly more protection of spatial learning and memory against the impairments induced by Aβ1-42 injection than did administration of EJE or SMW alone. Additionally, the behavioral deficits that accompanied Aβ-induced memory impairment were attenuated to a greater extent by the administration of the mixture. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and neuronal apoptosis were significantly more inhibited in rats treated with Aβ and the mixture than in rats treated with Aβ1-42 alone. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the mixture of EJ and SM has combined effects that are neuroprotective against Aβ1-42-induced neuronal toxicity. © 2014 © 2014 Korean Society for Integrative Biology. Source

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