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Joung Y.H.,Chonnam National University | Picton D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Park J.O.,Jeollanam do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Roh M.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The hybrid origin of Ilex × wandoensis C. F. Mill. & M. Kim was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using taxa-specific primers, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions, and sequence analysis of PCR amplicons of the ITS region. Five accessions of I. integra Thunb., three accessions of I. cornuta Lindl. & Paxton and 22 accessions of I. × wandoensis, tentatively characterized based on morphological characters, were selected and subjected to PCR analysis. Amplified products of the selected accessions were sequenced. Significant variations were observed in leaf morphology of I. × wandoensis accessions based on the presence of single or multiple teeth and cuneate or rounded base of the leaf blade. Based on the PCR amplifications, sequence and RFLP analysis using HhaI and HaeIII restriction enzymes, the hybrid origin of I. × wandoensis was confirmed. Some accessions appeared to be introgressant and either crossed back to I. integra or to I. cornuta based on the RFLP polymorphisms. Analysis of the ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) using primers specific to certain taxon or taxa, and RFLP analysis of PCR amplicons proved to be useful tools to study the nature of interspecific hybridization and introgressions in complement with morphological characters. © 2011 Korean Society for Horticultural Science. Source

Kim R.J.,Chonnam National University | Jo Y.H.,Chonnam National University | Oh S.H.,Chonnam National University | Park C.H.,Chonnam National University | And 6 more authors.
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2010

Hemolin has been known to play a key role in insect innate immunity. In an attempt to examine expression pattern of the Hemolin gene in the diamondback moth, Plutellea xylostella, the full-length cDNA of Hemolin was cloned using 5′-RACE PCR technique. The cDNA contained a 5′ untranslated region of 48 nucleotides and a 3′ untranslated region of 198 nucleotides, including a stop codon (TAA) and a poly (A) tail. It consists of 1,401 bp with an open reading frame of 1,245 bp, encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of PxHemolin has relatively low identities (35-42%) to various insect Hemolins. However, it has high three-dimensional structural similarity to Hemolin. Interestingly, analysis of spatial expression pattern of Px Hemolin shows that it was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubule and the silk gland although it was also detected in fat body and gut. Furthermore, Px Hemolin mRNA was highly induced 3 hr after immune-challenging with lipopolysaccharide and was gradually up-regulated after laminarin treatment. These data suggest that PxHemolin may play a role in innate immune responses although it remains to further elucidate the precise biological © The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer 2010. Source

Noh M.Y.,Chonnam National University | Jo Y.H.,Chonnam National University | Park C.H.,Chonnam National University | Lee E.S.,Chonnam National University | And 7 more authors.
Entomological Research | Year: 2010

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, and has accordingly been known to play an important role in reducing oxidative stresses induced by various stresses and infection. In an attempt to investigate whether it is involved in antiviral immune responses in insects, the full-length cDNA of SeCu/ZnSOD was obtained from the cDNA library of Spodoptera exigua. It is 1,008 bp long (excluding poly-A tail) with the open reading frame of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. Sequence analysis with BLAST shows identities to various insects such as Bombyx mori (80%), Hyphantria cunea (80%), Plutella xylostella (77%), Aedes aegypti (73%), Apis mellifera (71%), Lasius niger (70%), Drosophila melanogaster (69%) and Gryllotalpa orientalis (67%). During development, S. exigua expressed SeCu/ZnSOD predominantly at embryonic stage, pupal stage and adult female stage, whereas it was slightly expressed in larvae and adult male. In addition, SeCu/ZnSOD was highly expressed in the fat body, hemocyte, silk gland and Malpighian tubule, although the levels of SeCu/ZnSOD transcripts were very low in the gut. Furthermore, SeCu/ZnSOD mRNA was slightly induced in response to either lipopolysaccharide or laminarin. Finally, SeCu/ZnSOD mRNA was induced in carcass in response to S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeNPV) infection, whereas it was not strikingly induced in the gut. The precise roles of SeCu/ZnSOD in antiviral immune response remains to be further studied. © 2010 The Authors. Entomological Research © 2010 The Entomological Society of Korea and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Kim R.J.,Chonnam National University | Oh S.H.,Chonnam National University | Noh M.Y.,Chonnam National University | Jo Y.H.,Chonnam National University | And 5 more authors.
Entomological Research | Year: 2010

Calreticulin (CRT) plays pivotal roles in Ca2+ homeostasis, molecular chaperoning, infection, inflammation and innate immunity. In an attempt to study the involvement of CRT in innate immunity, the full-length cDNA of calreticulin (PxCRT) was cloned from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. It consists of 1674 bp (excluding poly-A tail) with a longest open reading frame (ORF) of 1197 bp encoding 398 amino acids. In silico analysis of PxCRT ORF reveals that it has various repeat motifs and endoplasmic reticulum retention signal found in all the calreticulin proteins. As expected, high amino acid sequence identities were found from other CRTs identified from Bombyx mori (87%), Galleria mellonella (87%), Apis mellifera (74%), Anopheles gambiae (74%), Tribolium castaneum (73%), Culex quinquefasciatus (73%), Rhodnius prolixus (72%), Nasonia vitripennis (71%), Drosophila melanogaster (71%) and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (68%). During development, P. xylostella expressed PxCRT predominantly in the pupal stage. In addition, spatial expression pattern analysis indicates that PxCRT was highly expressed in the silk gland. PxCRT mRNA, furthermore, was strongly induced 3 to 6 h after laminarin treatment, suggesting that PxCRT appears to be involved in immune responses and also plays an important role in the silk gland. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation. Source

Shin G.-H.,Jeollanam do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Seo J.-B.,Jeollanam do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim D.I.,Jeollanam do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Seung-Koo Y.,Jeollanam do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In the environment-friendly farming system, Fusarium wilt and crown brown rot occurred during the planting period and powdery mildew and gray mold during the harvesting. They have been causing serious damages at strawberry cultivation regions in Korea. Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Winks & Williams, was harmful at early growth stage of strawberry. Control of Fusarium wilt causing soil-borne disease was tried by soil drenching after addition of rice and wheat bran (1-2 t/10 a). The density of Fusarium wilt decreased and disease occurrence also decreased after strawberry plantation. Antagonistic microorganisms were tested with respect to the control of gray mold and powdery mildew on strawberry. Bacillus velezensis isolate successfully inhibited mycelium growth of gray mold. Liquid formulation of B. velezensis antagonist was treated three times (1/week) for three weeks on gray mold in the field, resulting in higher control efficacy (50.2%) than registered bio-pesticide. When B. velezensis antagonist was sprayed three times with 5-day intervals on powdery mildew in the field, the disease was successfully controlled with control efficacy of 88.7%. Source

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