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Hong K.-J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency | Yu D.,Jeollabuk Do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Park S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2012

The host plant, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Schisandraceae), of the weevil Dendrobaris maculata (Roelofs) (Madarini) is reported for the first time. The larvae grow in the lower stem of S. chinensis at the soil surface. Host plants are up to 5. years old. Redescription, photos of habitus, and genitalia of the weevil and damage and biological data of the host plant are provided. © 2011 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.


Choi I.Y.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim J.H.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim B.S.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Park M.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Shin H.D.,Korea University
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., family Apiaceae) is widely cultivated and used as a culinary spice. During winter of 2013-2014, fennel (cv. Florence) grown in a plastic greenhouse in Gongju (36°29′42.2″ N; 127°02′00.8″ E), Korea, exhibited typical symptoms of Sclerotinia rot. Initial symptoms were water-soaked lesions on stems at the soil line. The lower stems in contact with soil developed a brown decay and leaves on these stems became chlorotic. Dark-brown stem lesions enlarged and a cottony mycelium covered the affected area, followed by crown rot and wilt a few days afterward. About 50% of plants withered or died before harvest due to the disease. Whitish aggregates of mycelia developed into sclerotia that were 2 to 8 mm in diameter outside and inside affected stems. Stem tissues were surface-disinfested with 1% sodium hypochlorite, and segments were transferred onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Resultant colonies were white or faint gray and floccose, with black sclerotia (3 to 8 mm in diameter) forming on the colony surface near the margin. A representative isolate was deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (Accession No. KACC47724). Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, the fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary (Mordue and Holliday 1976). Fungal DNA was extracted with a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA). The complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced. The resulting sequence of 558 bp was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KJ614565). A BLAST search revealed that the sequence of the Korean isolate shared 100% identity to those of S. sclerotiorum (e.g., JN013184, KF859932, and DQ329537). A pathogenicity test was achieved by placing PDA plugs (9 mm2) from a 7-day-old culture on the stems of three healthy plants (cv. Florence) at the soil line. Three plants inoculated with noncolonized PDA plugs served as controls. Plants were enclosed in plastic bags that had been sprayed with water on the inside to maintain high humidity and kept in the greenhouse at 16 to 20°C. After 3 days, all inoculated stems became discolored, soft, watery, and covered with white mycelia, whereas control plants remained symptomless. S. sclerotiorum was consistently reisolated from the symptomatic tissue, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Pathogenicity tests were repeated twice with similar results. Sclerotinia stem rot of F. vulgare caused by S. sclerotiorum has been recorded from India, Taiwan, New Zealand, and Italy (Panchal et al. 2012; Farr and Rossman 2015). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sclerotinia stem rot on F. vulgare in Korea. Our continuous observations during the winter season (December, January, and February) suggest that low temperatures (4 to 10°C at night), high humidity, poor ventilation, and continuous cultivation in nonheated plastic greenhouse cultivation systems can increase the incidence and severity of Sclerotinia stem rot on fennel plants. © The American Phytopathological Society.


Choi I.Y.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim J.H.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Kim K.M.,Chonbuk National University | Cho S.E.,Korea University | Shin H.D.,Korea University
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Stachys affinis Bunge, known as Chinese artichoke, is native to northern China and is widely distributed in Asia, North America, and Europe. Its tuberous roots are used for medicinal purposes (Hayashi et al. 1994). In September 2014, powdery mildew was observed on hundreds of S. affinis plants grown in semi-shady areas on a farm near Iksan City, Korea, at approximately 50% disease incidence. Negligible disease was observed on nearby farms on unshaded crops. Symptoms first appeared as thin white colonies, which subsequently developed into abundant hyphal growth on stems and both sides of the leaves. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Korea University Herbarium (KUS). Appressoria were moderately lobed to multilobed. Conidiophores were 114 to 200 × 9 to 11 μm and produced 2 to 6 immature conidia in chains with a sinuate outline, followed by 1 to 3 straight cells. Foot-cells of conidiophores were straight, cylindrical, and 30 to 50 μm long. Conidia were hyaline, cylindric oval to ellipsoid, 28 to 38 × 15 to 20 μm (length/width ratio = 1.7 to 2.2), and devoid of conspicuous fibrosin bodies. Germ tubes were produced on the perihilar or lateral position of conidia. Dark brown chasmothecia were spherical, 110 to 150 µm in diameter, and contained 6 to 10 asci. Appendages numbering 10 to 30 per chasmothecium were mycelioid, 0.5 to 2.5 times as long as the chasmothecial diameter, and brown at the base and becoming paler toward the tip. Asci were broadly ellipsoid-ovoid, stalked, and 45 to 65 × 20 to 30 μm. No mature ascospores were found. Measurements and morphological characteristics were consistent with those of Neoerysiphe galeopsidis (DC.) U. Braun (Braun and Cook 2012). To confirm the identification, molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of KUS-F28368 was performed. The complete ITS regions of rDNA were amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4, and sequenced. The resulting 691-bp sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KR261582). A GenBank BLAST search using the Korean isolate showed >99% similarity with N. galeopsidis isolate from S. palustris (AB329679 from Switzerland) and lamiaceous hosts (e.g., AB498940, AB498945, and AB498946). Pathogenicity was confirmed by dusting conidia onto five leaves of a potted plant. Five noninoculated leaves of another potted plant served as controls. Powdery mildew developed on all inoculated leaves after 5 to 7 days. Noninoculated plants did not develop powdery mildew. Pathogenicity test was repeated twice with similar results. Previously, the powdery mildew infections associated with S. affinis have only been recorded as Oidium spp. from Japan (Amano 1986; Farr and Rossman 2015). To our knowledge, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by N. galeopsidis on S. affinis in Korea. Although powdery mildew occurred primarily on crops grown in shaded areas, the disease poses a new threat to production of this medicinal crop. Further work is needed to examine the effect of light intensity on the severity of this disease. © The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Korea University, Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services and Chonbuk National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycobiology | Year: 2016

Extensive disease surveys performed during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in Schisandra chinensis orchards resulted in the finding of a Septobasidium sp. associated with felt disease. The fungus was characterized to be symbiotic with a scale insect (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the Septobasidium isolates were investigated. The isolates were morphologically and phylogenetically close to S. bogoriense. We tentatively describe this isolate as a Septobasidium sp., mainly because of the limited amount of information available on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of Septobasidium spp.


PubMed | National Institute of Development Administration, Korea University and Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycobiology | Year: 2015

In September 2013, we discovered sooty mould growing on kenaf with the extrafloral nectaries in Iksan, Korea and identified the causative fungus as Leptoxyphium kurandae based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of sooty mould caused by L. kurandae on kenaf in Korea and globally.


Sharma P.K.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Sharma S.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Choi I.Y.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2010

Response of wheat genotype HD 2329 to individual and combined effects of alkalinity and waterlogging (WL) at tillering, panicle emergence and anthesis stage was studied. Both stresses increased Na accumulation and reduced K uptake which leads to higher Na+/K+ ratio in the leaves. Yield was decreased under all the stress treatments and highly correlated with Na+/K+ ratio at all the three growth stages (r = -0.83, -0.82 and -0.73, respectively) with maximum reduction under pH 9.4 + WL. Increase in pH from 7.2 to 9.1 and 9.4 delayed complete panicle emergence (4 and 8 days) and flowering (1 and 2 days) at both, tillering and panicle emergence stages. Dual stress further increased days, required for complete panicle emergence and flowering. These results suggested that high Na+/K+ ratio of plant tissue may be the critical factor for growth and development of wheat under WL, alkalinity and dual stress. Due to this delay in flowering and panicle emergence, times required for maturity of grains shorten, resulted in lower grain yield. © 2010 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.


Lee J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Ahn B.-K.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2010

Applicability of various chemical extracts was investigated as quantity (Q) factors to determine cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) desorption quantity-intensity (Q/I) relationships in soils. The metal extracts were sums of sequential metal fractions (except the residual fraction) using Tessier's (TSE) and Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedures and various single chemical extracts: 1.0 M potassium nitrate (KNO3), 1.0 M magnesium nitrate [Mg(NO3)2], 1.0 M magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and 0.11 M acetic acid (CH3COOH) solutions. Water-extractable metal was applied as a fixed intensity (I) factor. The TSE or BCR metal fractions were significantly correlated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metals, and all the metal desorption Q/I curves were linearly fitted. However, most of metal BC values estimated by using the single chemical extracts were very low and did not have consistent trends for target metals. Only 0.11 M CH3COOH-extractable metals might be reliable. Therefore, TSE and BCR metal fractions can be applicable to replace DTPA-extractable metals, and 0.11 M CH3COOH-extractable metals might also be useful. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Lee J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Kim D.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Ahn B.-K.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2015

The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg-1. However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg-1. Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10 % to 8.20 % of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Lee J.-J.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Hwang J.-H.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of day-length extension treatment using LED lighting (blue, green, red, or 3 mixed) on vegetative growth and flowering of freesia ‘Yvonne’, in comparison to that using glow lamps and metal halide lamps. Lighting treatments were imposed from 5 PM to 8 PM for 150 days from after flower bud differentiation to flowering end. For the period from leaf emergence to floral bud formation, no light source affected plant height but the number of leaves was decreased by the metal halide lamp. The highest SPAD value in the flower bud developing period occurred in the metal halide lamp treatment. The time of flowering was advanced by blue or green LED treatment compared to the no lighting control. The green LED lighting advanced flowering by 6 and 8 days compared to no lighting and metal halide lamp treatment, respectively. The blooming period tended to be shortened by the red LED treatment. As for the flower characteristics of ‘Yvonne’, floret length and width, and the weight of cut flowers were highest in the metal halide lamp treatment. Red LED decreased corm width and weight of ‘Yvonne’ while glow lamp decreased height and weight. Starch contents in corm were not influenced by the lighting source. Our results indicate that the green LED lighting advanced the time of flowering and the metal halide lamp was good for cut-flower quality. © 2014 Korean Society for Horticultural Science.


Kim D.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Shin H.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Ahn B.-K.,Jeollabuk do Agricultural Research and Extension Services | Lee J.-H.,Chonbuk National University
Applied Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate thallium (Tl) adsorption in different soils, including acidic Jeonju (JJ), neutral Iksan (IS), and alkaline Danyang (DY) soils treated with various single counter metal ions and to examine the competitive adsorption of Tl with other metals, including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), in multicomponent systems. Thallium buffering capacity of the soils was ordered as IS > DY > JJ soil in the single-component systems, whereas it was DY > IS > JJ soil in the multicomponent systems. In the competitive systems of Tl with different single counter metals, the Tl adsorption capacity of the soils ranged from 20.33 to 88.38 and Tl bonding energy values ranged from 0.369 to 0.731. Thallium adsorption capacity and bonding energy were negatively correlated. Selectivity sequences of metals in multicomponent systems were Pb > Tl > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cd in the JJ soil, Pb > Cu > Tl > Zn > Cd > Ni in the IS soil, and Pb > Cu > Tl ≥ Zn > Cd > Ni in the DY soil. The metal buffering capacity in the JJ, IS, and DY soils varied from 293.2 to 1125.2. The values were ordered as Tl ≫ Pb ≥ Zn ≥ Ni > Cu ≥ Cd in the JJ soil, Pb > Cu > Tl ≫ Ni > Zn ≥ Cd in the IS soil, and Pb > Cu ≫ Tl > Ni > Cd ≥ Zn in the DY soil. © 2016 The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry

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