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Roth J.,Jena University Hospital Jena | Muller N.,Jena University Hospital Jena | Lehmann T.,University Hospital Jena | Heinemann L.,Science & Co | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes | Year: 2016

Objective: Target HbA1c values given in the most National Therapeutic Guidelines for patients with diabetes and cut-off HbA1c values for diabetes diagnosis are usually not taking the age of the respective patients into account; despite the fact that an increase in HbA1c in subjects without diabetes with age is known for some time. In order to further quantify the association between age and HbA1c in non-diabetic subjects an analysis of one German register was performed. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we analyzed data from 7 699 visits of 2 921 patients without diabetes (age 46.6 y [range 18–93 y]; 69.1% women; BMI 27.6±6.4 kg/m²) who had at least one HbA1c and blood glucose measurement. Data were drawn from an electronic patient record system (EMIL™) in which data were collected between 01/1992 and 01/2014. The patients were divided in 6 age groups (< 30 years [n=1 057];>30–40 years [n=1 160];>40–50 years [n=1 693];>50–60 years [n=1 523];>60–70 years [n=1 310];>70 years [n=956]) and the HbA1c values of these groups were compared. Patients with: gestational diabetes, use of systemic glucocorticoids, malignant neoplasm, age<18 y at time of first visit and IGT were excluded. HbA1c measurements were DCCT adjusted. Results: Patients with age>70 years have a 0.47% [5.14 mmol/mol] higher HbA1c compared to those<30 years. The mean HbA1c of the age groups was:<30 4.98% [30.96 mmol/mol],>30–40 5.07% [31.99 mmol/mol],>40–50 5.17% [33.10 mmol/mol],>50–60 5.33% [34.79 mmol/mol],>60–70 5.42% [35.79 mmol/mol] and>70 years 5.45% [36.10 mmol/mol]. In a multiple linear model the regression coefficient for each year of age increase was β=0.0074 (p<0.001); thus age results in an increase of 0.074% in HbA1c per decade. Conclusion: HbA1c increases significantly with ageing in people without diabetes. The use of different cut-off values for every age range for diagnosis of diabetes should be discussed. Copyright © 2016, Georg Thieme Verlag KG. All rights reserved.

Bloos F.,Jena University Hospital | Bloos F.,Jena University Hospital Jena | Thomas-Ruddel D.,Jena University Hospital | Thomas-Ruddel D.,Jena University Hospital Jena | And 62 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2014

Introduction: Current sepsis guidelines recommend antimicrobial treatment (AT) within one hour after onset of sepsis-related organ dysfunction (OD) and surgical source control within 12 hours. The objective of this study was to explore the association between initial infection management according to sepsis treatment recommendations and patient outcome.Methods: In a prospective observational multi-center cohort study in 44 German ICUs, we studied 1,011 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock regarding times to AT, source control, and adequacy of AT. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality.Results: Median time to AT was 2.1 (IQR 0.8 - 6.0) hours and 3 hours (-0.1 - 13.7) to surgical source control. Only 370 (36.6%) patients received AT within one hour after OD in compliance with recommendation. Among 422 patients receiving surgical or interventional source control, those who received source control later than 6 hours after onset of OD had a significantly higher 28-day mortality than patients with earlier source control (42.9% versus 26.7%, P <0.001). Time to AT was significantly longer in ICU and hospital non-survivors; no linear relationship was found between time to AT and 28-day mortality. Regardless of timing, 28-day mortality rate was lower in patients with adequate than non-adequate AT (30.3% versus 40.9%, P < 0.001).Conclusions: A delay in source control beyond 6 hours may have a major impact on patient mortality. Adequate AT is associated with improved patient outcome but compliance with guideline recommendation requires improvement. There was only indirect evidence about the impact of timing of AT on sepsis mortality. © 2014 Bloos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rennert K.,University Hospital Jena | Rennert K.,Jena University Hospital Jena | Heisig K.,University Hospital Jena | Groeger M.,University Hospital Jena | And 9 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2016

Fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment and adhesion, and controls leukocyte migration on endothelial cells (ECs). We show that FKN triggers different effects in CD16+ and CD16- monocytes, the two major subsets of human monocytes. In the presence of ECs a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulus led to a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-secretion by CD16+ monocytes, which depends on the interaction of CX3CR1 expressed on CD16+ monocytes with endothelial FKN. Soluble FKN that was efficiently shed from the surface of LPS-activated ECs in response to binding of CD16+ monocytes to ECs, diminished monocyte adhesion in down-regulating CX3CR1 expression on the surface of CD16+ monocytes resulting in decreased TNF-secretion. In this process the TNF-converting enzyme (TACE) acts as a central player regulating FKN-shedding and TNFα-release through CD16+ monocytes interacting with ECs. Thus, the release and local accumulation of sFKN represents a mechanism that limits the inflammatory potential of CD16+ monocytes by impairing their interaction with ECs during the initial phase of an immune response to LPS. This regulatory process represents a potential target for therapeutic approaches to modulate the inflammatory response to bacterial components. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Jena University Hospital Jena
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in cellular neuroscience | Year: 2014

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS.

PubMed | Jena University Hospital Jena
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in neuroinformatics | Year: 2012

The aging brains structural development constitutes a spatiotemporal process that is accessible by MR-based computational morphometry. Here we introduce basic concepts and analytical approaches to quantify age-related differences and changes in neuroanatomical images of the human brain. The presented models first address the estimation of age trajectories, then we consider inter-individual variations of structural decline, using a repeated measures design. We concentrate our overview on preprocessed neuroanatomical images of the human brain to facilitate practical applications to diverse voxel- and surface-based structural markers. Together these methods afford analysis of aging brain structure in relation to behavioral, health, or cognitive parameters.

PubMed | Definiens, Center for PET, Jena University Hospital Jena and University Hospital Charite Berlin Germany
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology | Year: 2014

Manual evaluation of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a time-consuming and cost-intensive procedure. Aim of the study was to compare manual evaluation of SSTR subtype IHC to an automated software-based analysis, and to in-vivo imaging by SSTR-based PET/CT.We examined 25 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP-NET) patients and correlated their in-vivo SSTR-PET/CT data (determined by the standardized uptake values SUVmax,-mean) with the corresponding ex-vivo IHC data of SSTR subtype (1, 2A, 4, 5) expression. Exactly the same lesions were imaged by PET/CT, resected and analyzed by IHC in each patient. After manual evaluation, the IHC slides were digitized and automatically evaluated for SSTR expression by Definiens XD software. A virtual IHC score BB1 was created for comparing the manual and automated analysis of SSTR expression.BB1 showed a significant correlation with the corresponding conventionally determined Her2/neu score of the SSTR-subtypes 2A (rs: 0.57), 4 (rs: 0.44) and 5 (rs: 0.43). BB1 of SSTR2A also significantly correlated with the SUVmax (rs: 0.41) and the SUVmean (rs: 0.50). Likewise, a significant correlation was seen between the conventionally evaluated SSTR2A status and the SUVmax (rs: 0.42) and SUVmean (rs: 0.62).Our data demonstrate that the evaluation of the SSTR status by automated analysis (BB1 score), using digitized histopathology slides (virtual microscopy), corresponds well with the SSTR2A, 4 and 5 expression as determined by conventional manual histopathology. The BB1 score also exhibited a significant association to the SSTR-PET/CT data in accordance with the high affinity profile of the SSTR analogues used for imaging.

PubMed | Jena University Hospital Jena
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2012

Experimental models, mimicking physiology, and molecular dynamics of diseases in human, harbor the possibility to study the effect of interventions and transfer results from bench to bedside. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies, standardized protocols, and integration of knowledge from databases yielded rising consistency and usability of results for inter-species comparisons. Here, we explored similarities and dissimilarities in gene expression from blood samples of a murine sepsis model (peritoneal contamination and infection, PCI) and patients from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured by microarrays. Applying a consistent pre-processing and analysis workflow, differentially expressed genes (DEG) from PCI and PICU data significantly overlapped. A major fraction of DEG was commonly expressed and mapped to adaptive and innate immune response related pathways, whereas the minor fraction, including the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, exhibited constant inter-species disparities. Reproducibility of transcriptomic observations was validated experimentally in PCI. These data underline, that inter-species comparison can obtain commonly expressed transcriptomic features despite missing homologs and different protocols. Our findings point toward a high suitability of an animal sepsis model and further experimental efforts in order to transfer results from animal experiments to the bedside.

PubMed | Jena University Hospital Jena
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in neuroinformatics | Year: 2011

To date, there are several methods for mapping connectivity, ranging from the macroscopic to molecular scales. However, it is difficult to integrate this multiply-scaled data into one concept. Polarized light imaging (PLI) is a method to quantify fiber orientation in gross histological brain sections based on the birefringent properties of the myelin sheaths. The method is capable of imaging fiber orientation of larger-scale architectural patterns with higher detail than diffusion MRI of the human brain. PLI analyses light transmission through a gross histological section of a human brain under rotation of a polarization filter combination. Estimates of the angle of fiber direction and the angle of fiber inclination are automatically calculated at every point of the imaged section. Multiple sections can be assembled into a 3D volume. We describe the principles of PLI and present several studies of fiber anatomy as a synopsis of PLI: six brainstems were serially sectioned, imaged with PLI, and 3D reconstructed. Pyramidal tract and lemniscus medialis were segmented in the PLI datasets. PLI data from the internal capsule was related to results from confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is a method of smaller scale fiber anatomy. PLI fiber architecture of the extreme capsule was compared to macroscopical dissection, which represents a method of larger-scale anatomy. The microstructure of the anterior human cingulum bundle was analyzed in serial sections of six human brains. PLI can generate highly resolved 3D datasets of fiber orientation of the human brain and has high comparability to diffusion MR. To get additional information regarding axon structure and density, PLI can also be combined with classical histological stains. It brings the directional aspects of diffusion MRI into the range of histology and may represent a promising tool to close the gap between larger-scale diffusion orientation and microstructural histological analysis of connectivity.

PubMed | Jena University Hospital Jena, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in aging neuroscience | Year: 2014

Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The Brain Age Gap Estimation (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

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