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Jena, Germany

Aapro M.,Institute Multidisciplinaire dOncologie | Bernard-Marty C.,Institute Claudius Regaud | Brain E.G.C.,Institute Curie HOpital Rene Huguenin | Batist G.,McGill University | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Background: Comorbidities and risk factors likely to complicate treatment are common in elderly cancer patients. Anthracyclines remain the cornerstone of first-line therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and metastatic and early breast cancer but can cause congestive heart failure. Elderly patients are at increased risk of this event and measures to reduce it should be considered. Methods: A committee of experts in breast cancer and NHL met under the auspices of the International Society for Geriatric Oncology to review the literature and make recommendations, based on level of evidence, for the assessment, treatment and monitoring of elderly patients requiring anthracyclines. Results and recommendations: Use of anthracycline-based chemotherapy illustrates many of the dilemmas facing elderly cancer patients. Age in itself should not prevent access to potentially curative treatment or treatment that prolongs life or improves its quality. The risk of cardiotoxicity with conventional anthracyclines is increased by the following factors: an existing or history of heart failure or cardiac dysfunction; hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease; older age (independent of comorbidities and performance status); prior treatment with anthracyclines; higher cumulative dose of anthracyclines and short infusion duration. The fact that cumulative and irreversible cardiotoxicity is likely to be greater in this population than among younger patients calls for effective pretreatment screening for risk factors, rigorous monitoring of cardiac function and early intervention. Use of liposomal anthracycline formulations, prolonging the infusion time for conventional anthracyclines and cardioprotective measures should be considered. However, when treatment is being given with curative intent, care should be taken to ensure reduced cardiotoxicity is not achieved at the expense of efficacy. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Heeren M.,Hannover Medical School | Weissenborn K.,Hannover Medical School | Arvanitis D.,Hannover Medical School | Bokemeyer M.,Hannover Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography of the brain, and single photon emission tomography of striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. None of the patients had liver cirrhosis. Patients data were compared with data of age-matched controls. In addition, regression analysis was performed between cognitive deficits, and mood and fatigue scores as dependent variables, and cerebral glucose metabolism, dopamine, or SERT availability as predictors. Patients showed significant cognitive deficits, significantly decreased striatal dopamine and midbrain SERT availability, and significantly reduced glucose metabolism in the limbic association cortex, and in the frontal, parietal, and superior temporal cortices, all of which correlated with dopamine transporter availability and psychometric results. Thus, the study provides further evidence of central nervous system affection in HCV-afflicted patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data indicate alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission as a possible mechanism of cognitive decline. © 2011 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

Graichen U.,TU Ilmenau | Eichardt R.,TU Ilmenau | Fiedler P.,TU Ilmenau | Strohmeier D.,TU Ilmenau | And 3 more authors.

Important requirements for the analysis of multichannel EEG data are efficient techniques for signal enhancement, signal decomposition, feature extraction, and dimensionality reduction. We propose a new approach for spatial harmonic analysis (SPHARA) that extends the classical spatial Fourier analysis to EEG sensors positioned non-uniformly on the surface of the head. The proposed method is based on the eigenanalysis of the discrete Laplace-Beltrami operator defined on a triangular mesh.We present several ways to discretize the continuous Laplace-Beltrami operator and compare the properties of the resulting basis functions computed using these discretization methods. We apply SPHARA to somatosensory evoked potential data from eleven volunteers and demonstrate the ability of the method for spatial data decomposition, dimensionality reduction and noise suppression. When employing SPHARA for dimensionality reduction, a significantly more compact representation can be achieved using the FEM approach, compared to the other discretization methods. Using FEM, to recover 95% and 99% of the total energy of the EEG data, on average only 35% and 58% of the coefficients are necessary. The capability of SPHARA for noise suppression is shown using artificial data. We conclude that SPHARA can be used for spatial harmonic analysis of multi-sensor data at arbitrary positions and can be utilized in a variety of other applications. © 2015 Graichen et al. Source

Sanubol A.,Khon Kaen University | Chaveerach A.,Khon Kaen University | Sudmoon R.,Khon Kaen University | Tanee T.,Khon Kaen University | And 2 more authors.
Malayan Nature Journal

Piper argyritis Ridl. ex C.DC., P. betle L., P. maculaphyllum Chaveer. & Sudmoon, P. pendulispicum C.DC., and P. rubroglandulosum Chaveer. & Mokkamul are very important species for biodiversity, food, and medicine. Accordingly, proper identification should be verified using available data, especially since some controversies exist concerning the distinctiveness of certain species pairs (e.g., P. argyritis/P. maculaphyllum, P. betle/P. rubroglandulosum, and P. pendulispicum/Piper sp.) based solely on morphology. In this study, a dendrogram constructed from 1,015 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding patterns revealed this method to be a powerful and efficient tool to distinguish among Piper species. Individuals of P. betle and P. rubroglandulosum are grouped in each species clade, with genetic similarity (S) levels of 0.84-0.91 and 0.87, respectively, and all studied species are recognized as separate species, with S values of 0.57 to 0.82. The S levels of males and females of P. betle and P. rubroglandulosum are 0.84-0.91, within the level considered as identical species. Moreover, an analysis of chemical constituents provided additional species distinctions, as P. rubroglandulosum contains 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol, trans-caryophyllene, and 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxy benzene, while P. betle contains eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavibetol. Source

Marrinucci D.,Scripps Research Institute | Marrinucci D.,General Atomics | Bethel K.,Scripps Research Institute | Kolatkar A.,Scripps Research Institute | And 25 more authors.
Physical Biology

Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This 'HD-CTC' assay finds >5 HD-CTCs mL -1 of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n = 20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n = 30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 18), and in 0% of normal controls (n = 15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HD-CTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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