Jemora Pty Ltd.

Geelong, Australia

Jemora Pty Ltd.

Geelong, Australia

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Baral R.M.,Paddington Cat Hospital | Baral R.M.,University of Sydney | Dhand N.K.,University of Sydney | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2015

In-house analysers are commonplace in small animal practices but cannot be calibrated by the operator; therefore, any bias in the generated plasma analyte values cannot be corrected. Guidelines such as grading of renal disease and published reference intervals (RIs) in veterinary textbooks assume plasma biochemistry values generated by different analysers are equivalent. This study evaluated the degree of bias, as well as if bias was constant or proportional, for feline plasma biochemical analytes assessed by three in-house biochemistry analysers compared with a commercial laboratory analyser. Blood samples were collected on 101 occasions from 94 cats and, after centrifugation, plasma was divided into four aliquots. One aliquot was sent to the commercial laboratory and the remaining three were tested using the in-house biochemistry analysers. Results from each analyser were compared with the commercial laboratory results by difference plots and analyses, and by comparing percentages of results within provided RIs. Substantial bias was evident relative to the results of the commercial analyser for at least half of the analytes tested for each machine. In most cases, bias was proportional, meaning that the difference between the methods varied with the concentration of the analyte. The results demonstrate that values obtained from these analysers should not be directly compared and that RIs are not transferable between these analysers. Potential effects of bias on clinical decision-making may be overcome by use of appropriately generated RIs, or reference change values which, for most biochemistry analytes, are more appropriate than subject-based RIs. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.


Farrow H.A.,University of Queensland | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,University of Queensland | O'Leary C.A.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Reducing carbohydrate intake is recommended in diabetic cats and might also be useful in some healthy cats to decrease diabetes risk. Objective: To compare postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and energy intakes between cats fed diets high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. Animals: Twenty-four lean cats with normal glucose tolerance. Methods: In a prospective randomized study, each of 3 matched groups (n = 8) received a different test diet for 5 weeks. Diets were high in either protein (46% of metabolizable energy [ME]), fat (47% ME), or carbohydrate (47% ME). Glucose and insulin were measured during glucose tolerance, ad libitum, and meal-feeding tests. Results: During ad libitum feeding, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet consumed 25% and 18% more carbohydrate than cats fed diets high in fat and protein, respectively, and energy intake was highest when the high-fat and high-protein diets were fed. Regardless of the feeding pattern, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet had 10-31% higher peak and mean glucose compared with both other diets; peak glucose in some cats reached 10.4 mmol/L (188 mg/dL) in cats fed 47% ME carbohydrate and 9.0 mmol/L (162 mg/dL) in cats fed 23% ME. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: High-carbohydrate diets increase postprandial glycemia in healthy cats compared with diets high in fat or protein, although energy intake is lower. Avoidance of high- and moderate-carbohydrate diets can be advantageous in cats at risk of diabetes. Maintenance energy requirements should be fed to prevent weight gain when switching to lower carbohydrate diets. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Shephard R.W.,Herd Health Pty Ltd | Shephard R.W.,Charles Sturt University | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty Ltd | Norman S.T.,Charles Sturt University
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250. μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Stone B.M.,QML Vetnostics | Blyde D.J.,Sea World | Saliki J.T.,University of Georgia | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty Ltd
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=56) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.


Coradini M.,University of Queensland | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty Ltd | Arai T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Leptin and adiponectin play important roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in different species. Information is limited on the effects of diet, weight gain, and fat mass on their concentrations in cats. This study compared fasting and postprandial blood leptin and total adiponectin concentrations before and after 8 wk of ad libitum feeding to promote weight gain in adult cats (n = 32) fed either a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (23% and 47% ME) or a high-carbohydrate, low-protein (51% and 21% ME) diet. There were significant effects of total, abdominal, and nonabdominal fat mass, but not diet or body weight, on mean 24-h and peak leptin (. P < 0.01); observed increases in mean and peak leptin were greatest for abdominal fat mass (50% and 56% increase for every extra 100 g, respectively). After weight gain, postprandial leptin concentration increased markedly relative to when cats were lean, and the duration of the increase was longer after a mean weight gain of 37% with the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet group compared with 17% with the high-carbohydrate, low-protein group (. P ≤ 0.01). Adiponectin was lower than fasting at some time points during the postprandial period in both groups (. P ≤ 0.05). For both fasting and mean 24-h adiponectin, there was no significant diet effect (. P ≥ 0.19) or changes in weight gain relative to when cats were lean (. P ≥ 0.29). In conclusion, fat mass, and not diet, has a large effect on postprandial leptin but not adiponectin concentrations in cats. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Gottlieb S.,The Cat Clinic | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Marshall R.,The Cat Clinic | Morton J.,University of Queensland | Morton J.,Jemora Pty Ltd
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: It is unknown if diabetic cats in remission have persistent abnormalities of glucose metabolism and should be considered prediabetic, or have normal glucose tolerance. Objective: To characterize glycemic status of diabetic cats in remission and to determine predictors of relapse. Animals: A total of 21 cats in diabetic remission and 28 healthy control cats. Methods: At a median of 107 days after remission, screening blood glucose concentration was measured on entry to the clinic. After a 24-hour fast in hospital, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and feline pancreatic lipase concentrations were measured, and 3 hours later, a simplified IV glucose tolerance test (1 g glucose/kg) performed. Twenty cats were monitored for relapse for at least 9 months. Results: Of the 21 cats in remission, 19% (4/21) had impaired fasting glucose concentration and 76% (16/21) had impaired glucose tolerance. Of cats followed up for 9 months after testing, 30% (6/20) had relapsed and required insulin treatment. Fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.5 mmol/L (≥135 mg/dL) (odds ratio [OR] = 12.8) and severely impaired glucose tolerance (≥5 hours to return to <6.5 mmol/L or <117 mg/dL; OR = 15.2) were significantly associated with relapse. Blood glucose concentration >14 mmol/L; 252 mg/dL at 3 hours was significantly associated with relapse (OR = 10.1). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Most cats in diabetic remission have impaired glucose tolerance and a minority have impaired fasting glucose concentration and should be considered prediabetic. More severe glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose concentration are predictors of relapse. Ongoing glucose monitoring of diabetic cats in remission is recommended. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


McDougall S.,Anexa Animal Health | Heuer C.,Massey University | Morton J.,Jemora Pty Ltd. | Brownlie T.,Anexa Animal Health
Animal | Year: 2014

There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate (P=0.05). The following additional observations were made in herds involved in the farmer action group relative to control herds: heifers had live weight closer to target; the pre-mating body condition score of cows was higher; and oestrous detection rates were higher. It was concluded that involvement in this herd reproductive management programme improved reproductive outcomes in this New Zealand study. However, to achieve substantial improvements in herd reproductive performance at the regional or national level a greater response to the programme and a high uptake of such programmes is required, as well as use of other industry-level tools such as genetic management programmes. © 2014 The Animal Consortium.


Farrow H.,University of Queensland | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty Ltd | Sunvold G.,The Iams Company
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2012

The postprandial increase in glucose concentration is typically not considered in selecting diets to manage diabetic and pre-diabetic cats. This study describes increases in glucose and insulin concentrations in 24 clinically healthy, neutered adult cats following one meal (59 kcal/kg) of a moderate carbohydrate diet (25% of energy). Median time to return to baseline after feeding for glucose was 12.2 h (1.8-≥24 h) and for insulin was 12.3 h (1.5-≥24 h). Time to return to baseline for glucose was not different between male (10.2 h) and female (17.2 h) cats. There was evidence female cats had a longer return to baseline for insulin (18.9 h versus 9.8 h) and females had higher (0.9 mmol/l difference) peak glucose than males. This demonstrates that the duration of postprandial glycaemia in cats is markedly longer than in dogs and humans, and should be considered when managing diabetic and pre-diabetic cats. © ISFM and AAFP 2012.


Verkest K.R.,University of Queensland | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Fleeman L.M.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Dogs do not appear to progress from obesity-induced insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both postprandial hyperglycemia and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia have been proposed to cause or maintain beta cell failure and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus in other species. Postprandial glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations have not been compared in lean and obese dogs. We measured serum glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations in nine naturally occurring obese and nine age- and gender-matched lean dogs. After a 24-h fast, dogs were fed half their calculated daily energy requirement of a standardized diet that provided 37% and 40% of metabolizable energy as carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Fasting and postprandial glucose and triglyceride concentrations were greater in the obese dogs (P < 0.001), although the mean insulin concentration for this group was five times greater than that of the lean group (P < 0.001). Most of the 0.6 mM (11 mg/dL) difference in mean postprandial glucose concentrations between lean and obese dogs was attributable to a subset of persistently hyperglycemic obese dogs with mean postprandial glucose concentrations 1.0 mM (18 mg/dL) greater than that in lean dogs. Persistently hyperglycemic obese dogs had lower triglyceride (P = 0.02 to 0.04) and insulin (P < 0.02) concentrations than other obese dogs. None of the dogs developed clinical signs of diabetes mellitus during follow-up for a median of 2.6 yr. We conclude that pancreatic beta cells in dogs are either not sensitive to toxicity because of mild hyperglycemia or lack another component of the pathophysiology of beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Verkest K.R.,University of Queensland | Fleeman L.M.,University of Queensland | Rand J.S.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,Jemora Pty. Ltd.
American Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2011

Objective - To compare beta-cell sensitivity to glucose, first-phase insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance between dogs with naturally occurring obesity of > 2 years' duration and lean dogs. Animals - 17 client-owned obese or lean dogs. Procedures - Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed with minimal model analysis on 6 obese dogs and matched controls. Glucagon stimulation tests were performed on 5 obese dogs and matched controls. Results - Obese dogs were half as sensitive to the effects of insulin as lean dogs. Plasma glucose concentrations after food withholding did not differ significantly between groups; plasma insulin concentrations were 3 to 4 times as great in obese as in lean dogs. Obese dogs had plasma insulin concentrations twice those of lean dogs after administration of glucose and 4 times as great after administration of glucagon. First-phase insulin secretion was greater in obese dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Obese dogs compensated for obesity-induced insulin resistance by secreting more insulin. First-phase insulin secretion and beta-cell glucose sensitivity were not lost despite years of obesity-induced insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. These findings help explain why dogs, unlike cats and humans, have not been documented to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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