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Jeju, South Korea

Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Lee W.J.,Jeju Technopark | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2, known inflammatory mediators, are critically involved in the pathogenesis of a large number of human inflammatory diseases. Therefore, a search of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors is a useful strategy to find functional substances to alleviate inflammatory disease. In our search for anti-inflammatory ingredients, we found that extracts of Ulva fasciata (UFE) and Desmarestia viridis (DVE) inhibit the generation of NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. U. fasciata and D. viridis were extracted with 80% ethanol and then partitioned successively with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate fractions are effective dose-dependent inhibitors of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. To test the inhibitory effects of UFE and DVE on pro-inflammatory cytokines, we performed ELISA assays for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL (interleukin)-1β, and IL(interleukin)-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In these assays, the UFE and DVE showed a dose-dependent decrease in the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. As a preliminary study of the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we determined, using the Western blot analysis, whether or not UFE and DVE inhibit the degradation of I-kappa-B-alpha (IKB-α). Our results indicate that UFE and DVE indeed prevent the degradation of IKB-α, in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that extracts of U. fasciata and D. viridis be considered candidates for anti-inflammatory agents for human use. © 2013 Min-Jin Kim et al. Source


Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Yang E.-J.,Jeju National University | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 5 more authors.
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA) downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, CUF-EA suppressed LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-á. To elucidate its anti-inflammatory mechanisms, CUF-EA was investigated as an inhibitor of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As expected, the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38, ERK1/2 and JNK) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was suppressed by CUF-EA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of CUF-EA might results from inhibition of NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-á expressions through the down-regulation of phosphorylation of MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Source


Yang E.-J.,Jeju National University | Moon J.-Y.,Jeju National University | Kim S.S.,Jeju National University | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Methods: Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results: Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 μg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 μg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 μg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 μg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 μg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 μg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 μg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 μg/mg for G. filicina. Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for inflammatory responses. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Source


Yang E.-J.,Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute | Ham Y.M.,Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Lee N.H.,Jeju National University | Hyun C.-G.,Jeju National University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor Bα (IBα) protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-B signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties. © 2013 Eun-Jin Yang et al. Source


Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Yang K.-W.,Kyungnam University of Science and Technology | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 6 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2014

Though many essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have several medicinal functions, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Citrus flowers have not been well described. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from C. unshiu flower (CEO) to support its purported beneficial health effects. The chemical constituents of the CEO, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), included γ-terpinene (24.7%), 2-β-pinene (16.6%), 1-methyl-2-isopropylbenzene (11.5%), L-limonene (5.7%), β-ocimene (5.6%), and α-pinene (4.7%). The effects of the CEO on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits. Source

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