News Article | May 19, 2017
Patients undergoing a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in today’s bulky, donut-shaped machines must lie completely still. Because of this, scientists cannot use the scanners to unearth links between movement and brain activity. What goes on up there when we nod in agreement or shake hands? How are the brains of people struggling to walk after a stroke different from those who can? To tackle questions like these, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, a neuroscientist at West Virginia University (WVU), has partnered with Stan Majewski, a physicist at WVU and now at the University of Virginia, to develop a miniaturized PET brain scanner. The scanner can be “worn” like a helmet, allowing research subjects to stand and make movements as the device scans. This Ambulatory Microdose Positron Emission Tomography (AMPET) scanner could launch new psychological and clinical studies on how the brain functions when affected by diseases from epilepsy to addiction, and during ordinary and dysfunctional social interactions. “There are so many possibilities,” says Brefczynski-Lewis, “Scientists could use AMPET to study Alzheimer’s or traumatic brain injuries, or even our sense of balance. We want to push the limits of imaging mobility with this device.” The idea was sparked by a scanner developed for studying rats, a project started in 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory. Majewski, a high-energy physicist by training, originally caught wind of Brookhaven’s “RatCAP” project because he ran in the same physicist circles as several of the RatCAP team members “I learned about what my friends and colleagues at Brookhaven were doing,” says Majewski, “and decided to build the same type of device for humans.” The Rat Conscious Animal PET, or RatCAP, scanner is a 250-gram ring that fits around the head of a rat, suspended by springs to support its weight and let the rat scurry about as the device scans. Nora Volkow, head of Brookhaven’s Life Sciences division at the time, came up with the idea to image the brains of awake and moving animals. “I wanted to do PET scans on animals without having to use anesthesia,” says Volkow, who is now the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Unlike humans, animals can’t be told to simply lie still in a scanner. But the anesthesia required to make them lie still muddies the results. “It affects the distribution of the PET radiotracer and inhibits neurons,” Volkow said. A wearable scanner, however, would move with the animal’s brain and eliminate the need for anesthesia. Volkow enlisted the help of Brookhaven scientists and engineers to make the idea a reality. Fortunately, there is a large overlap between medical imaging and nuclear physics, a subject in which Brookhaven Lab is a world leader. Today, physicists at the Lab use technology similar to PET scanners at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where they must track the particles that fly out of near-light speed collisions of charged nuclei. PET research at the Lab dates back to the early 1960s and includes the creation of the first single-plane scanner as well as various tracer molecules. “Both fields think about the same things — how the photodetectors work, how the scintillating crystals work, how the electronics work,” says Brookhaven physicist Craig Woody. “PET scanners, as well as CT [computed tomography] and MRI [magnetic resonance imaging], are used by doctors but they are built by detector physicists.” Woody, who is now working on a new particle detector for RHIC, led the RatCAP project with David Schlyer and Paul Vaska. At the time, Schlyer and Vaska were heads of Brookhaven’s cyclotron operations and of PET physics, respectively. Schlyer is now a scientist emeritus at the Lab and Vaska is a professor of biomedical engineering at Stony Brook University. In designing the small-scale scanner, the team used recent advances in detector technology. For instance, they used dense crystals to convert the gamma photons generated by positron-electron interactions into visible light, along with small light-detecting sensors called avalanche photodiodes. They also used special electronics developed at Brookhaven and built into the compact, lightweight PET detector. Suspending the structure on long springs helped support its weight so rats could “wear” the scanner while moving around easily. “It was a very collaborative effort,” says Schlyer, who produced the radioisotopes needed for the scans. “We had people from physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, and electrical engineering.” Word got out about RatCAP as the scientists presented their progress at conferences and meetings. Stan Majewski, then at DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), took notice. He had been working on new methods of breast cancer imaging, applying his high-energy physics detector expertise to the medical field. “I had known Stan for a long time — we worked together at CERN, the European nuclear physics laboratory,” says Woody. “I have to give him credit because he was constantly saying ‘you really ought to do medical physics.’” Majewski notes that Jefferson Lab's management was very supportive of the project and provided some seed money even after he relocated to WVU to do more work on medical imaging. While there he expanded on the ideas of the RatCAP and built a prototype wearable PET brain imager for humans. “A mobile brain imaging tool has applications in psychology research and clinical uses,” Majewski says. “You could do bedside imaging of epilepsy, for example, and watch what happens in the brain during a seizure.” Majewski’s “Helmet_PET” prototype, patented in 2011, used silicon photomultipliers — a newer, similarly compact but more efficient photodetector than the avalanche photodiodes used in RatCAP. “Stan saw the potential in the RatCAP and took it further,” says Woody. The patent drawing of the prototype was sitting on Majewski’s desk at WVU when Brefczynski-Lewis, a neuroscientist, walked in. The drawing of a helmet-shaped detector on an upright person caught her attention. “I had always been bothered by this middle zone of the brain you couldn’t reach with other imaging technologies,” she says. “With electroencephalography (EEG) you can’t reach deep brain structures, but with PET and MRI you can’t have motion. I thought Stan’s device could fill this niche.” After building the first prototype at WVU, the two scientists began using Helmet_PET to image the brains of volunteer patients. After Majewski transferred to the University of Virginia the team developed a newer model of the device, now known as AMPET. The current imaging cap is designed to scan a standing person and is attached to an overhead support, allowing for some motion. AMPET bears great similarity to one of the first PET scanners built at Brookhaven, nicknamed the “hair dryer.” “The ideas have sort of come full circle,” says Schlyer. “What has changed is the technology that makes these devices possible.” The AMPET team hopes to start developing a full-brain scanner soon — one that covers the entire head rather than examining a horizontal five-centimeter section, like the current ring. Because AMPET sits so close to the brain, it can “catch” more of the photons stemming from the radiotracers used in PET than larger scanners can. That means researchers can administer a lower dose of radioactive material and still get a good biological snapshot. Catching more signals also allows AMPET to create higher resolution images than regular PET. But most importantly, PET scans allow researchers to see further into the body than other imaging tools. This lets AMPET reach deep neural structures while the research subjects are upright and moving. “A lot of the important things that are going on with emotion, memory, and behavior are way deep in the center of the brain: the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala,” Brefczynski-Lewis says. From a psychologist’s or neuroscientist’s perspective, AMPET could open doors to a variety of experiments, from exploring the brain’s reactions to different environments to the mechanisms involved in arguing or being in love. Brefczynski-Lewis describe ways to use AMPET to study the brain activity that underlies emotion. “Currently we are doing tests to validate the use of virtual reality environments in future experiments,” she says. In this “virtual reality,” volunteers would read from a script designed to make the subject angry, for example, as his or her brain is scanned. In the medical sphere, the scanning helmet could help explain what happens during drug treatments, or shed light on movement disorders. “There is a sub-population of Parkinson’s patients who have great difficulty walking, but can ride a bicycle with ease and without hesitation,” says Schlyer, who is also an adjunct professor in the Radiology department at Weill Cornell Medical College, where he studies Parkinson’s. “What is going on in their brains that makes these two activities so different? With this device we could monitor regional brain activation as patients walk and bike, and potentially answer that question.” Brefczynski-Lewis notes, “We have successfully imaged the brain of someone walking in place. Now we’re ready to build a laboratory-ready version. It’s been an exciting journey — uncovering the needs of different neuroscientists and developing this device that we hope will someday meet those needs, and help in our quest to understand the brain.” The RatCAP project at Brookhaven was funded by the DOE Office of Science. RHIC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research.
News Article | May 23, 2017
Washington Impacts Investing When asked to select the top three trends that will impact their approach to investing in 2017, RIAs and fee-based advisors are squarely focused on D.C., rating US Fed Policy first (32%) and regulatory changes second (29%), while Washington politics came in at a close third (28%). In last year's study, RIAs and fee-based advisors cited ongoing volatility first at 34%, while this year volatility declined significantly to just 23%. Meanwhile, individual investors also shared many of the same concerns about lawmakers' impact on their approach to investing, rating Washington politics first (33%), US Fed Policy second (29%), while changes to tax code and domestic economic performance tied for third (24%). Rising Concerns about Gridlock When asked to select the top macro issue that will adversely impact their clients' portfolio, RIAs and fee-based advisors rated global instability first (20%) and rising interest rates second (19%). Ongoing volatility declined significantly from the number one spot at 22% in 2016, to the number three spot at 16% in 2017. Gridlock in Washington spiked to the number four spot at 14% in 2017, from just 6% in 2016. Meanwhile, when asked to select the top macro issue that will adversely impact their portfolio, individual investors said gridlock in Washington was first at 21%, a significant spike from just 9% in 2016. Global instability (21%) tied with gridlock for the number one issue, while taxes held steady year over year as the number two issue (17% in 2017 vs. 16% in 2016). Tax reform is also top of mind for both advisors and investors, with advisors particularly optimistic about the impact on their clients. The vast majority of RIAs and fee-based advisors (85%) indicated that they believe the majority of their clients will benefit from the new administration's proposed tax reform, while two thirds of individual investors (66%) believe that they will benefit. The third annual Advisor Authority study explores the investing and advising issues confronting RIAs, fee-based advisors and investors—and the innovative techniques that they need to succeed in today's volatile market. It features a special focus on the most successful advisors and the most affluent investors. These initial findings are to be followed by a series of reports that will be released from June through year-end. About Advisor Authority: Methodology The third annual Advisory Authority Survey was conducted online within the United States by Harris Poll on behalf of Jefferson National, now operating as Nationwide's advisory solutions business, from March 13 – April 7, 2017 among 779 employed financial advisors, ages 18+ and 817 investors, ages 18+ who are primary or shared financial decision makers with investable assets greater than $100K. Among the 779 financial advisors, there were 521 Registered Investment Advisors and 258 Broker/Dealers. Among the 817 investors, there were 208 Mass Affluent, 204 Emerging High Net Worth, 204 High Net Worth and 201 Ultra High Net Worth. Investors are weighted where necessary by age by gender, race/ethnicity, region, education, income, marital status, household size, investable assets and propensity to be online to bring them in line with their actual proportions in the population. Results of this new research are compared to results from a similar March 2016 study conducted online by Harris Poll on behalf of Jefferson National among 683 employed Financial Advisors, including 440 Independent Registered Investment Advisors and 243 Broker/Dealers and among 733 Investors. Respondents for this survey were selected from among those who have agreed to participate in Harris Poll surveys. Because the sample is based on those who were invited to participate in the Harris Poll online research panel, no estimates of theoretical sampling error can be calculated. A complete survey method is available upon request. About Harris Poll Over the last 5 decades, Harris Polls have become media staples. With comprehensive experience and precise technique in public opinion polling, along with a proven track record of uncovering consumers' motivations and behaviors, Harris Poll has gained strong brand recognition around the world. Contact us for more information. About Jefferson National Jefferson National, now Nationwide's advisory solutions business is a recognized innovator of a leading tax-advantaged investing platform for RIAs, fee-based advisors and the clients they serve. Trusted partner to a network of over 4,000 advisors, Jefferson National provides greater efficiency, transparency and choice through an adaptable technology platform, award-winning distribution strategy and cost-effective servicing capabilities. Named the industry "Gold Standard" as of 2012 and winner of more than 50 industry awards, including the DMA 2010 Financial Services Company of the Year. The company serves advisors and clients nationwide, through its subsidiaries Jefferson National Life Insurance Company and Jefferson National Life Insurance Company of New York. To reach our advisor support desk, please call 1-866-WHY-FLAT (1-866-949-3528). To learn more, please visit www.jeffnat.com. About Nationwide Nationwide, a Fortune 100 company based in Columbus, Ohio, is one of the largest and strongest diversified insurance and financial services organizations in the U.S. and is rated A+ by both A.M. Best and Standard & Poor's. The company provides a full range of insurance and financial services, including auto, commercial, homeowners, farm and life insurance; public and private sector retirement plans, annuities and mutual funds; banking and mortgages; excess & surplus, specialty and surety; pet, motorcycle and boat insurance. For more information, visit www.nationwide.com. Nationwide, Nationwide is on your side, the Nationwide N and Eagle are service marks of Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company. © 2017 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/washington-politics-rated-one-of-top-three-trends-that-will-impact-advisors-and-investors-approach-to-investing-in-2017-300462183.html
News Article | May 3, 2017
The 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade is a $338 million, multi-year project to triple CEBAF's original operational energy for investigating the quark structure of the atom's nucleus. The majority of the upgrade is complete and will be finishing up in 2017. Scientists have been rigorously commissioning the experimental equipment to prepare for a new era of nuclear physics experiments. These activities have already led to the first scientific result, which comes from the Gluonic Excitations Experiment. GlueX conducts studies of the strong force, which glues matter together, through searches for hybrid mesons. According to Curtis Meyer, a professor of physics at Carnegie Mellon University and spokesperson for the GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab, these hybrid mesons are built of the same stuff as ordinary protons and neutrons, which are quarks bound together by the "glue" of the strong force. But unlike ordinary mesons, the glue in hybrid mesons behaves differently. "The basic idea is that a meson is a quark and antiquark bound together, and our understanding is that the glue holds those together. And that glue manifests itself as a field between the quarks. A hybrid meson is one with that strong gluonic field being excited," Meyer explains. He says that producing these hybrid mesons allows nuclear physicists to study particles in which the strong gluonic field is contributing directly to their properties. The hybrid mesons may ultimately provide a window into how subatomic particles are built by the strong force, as well as "quark confinement" - why no quark has ever been found alone. "We hope to show that this "excited" gluonic field is an important constituent of matter. That's something that has not been observed in anything that we've seen so far. So, in some sense, it's a new type of hadronic matter that has not been observed," he says. In this first result, data were collected over a two-week period following equipment commissioning in the spring of 2016. The experiment produced two ordinary mesons called the neutral pion and the eta, and the production mechanisms of these two particles were carefully studied. The experiment takes advantage of the full-energy, 12 GeV electron beam produced by the CEBAF accelerator and delivered into the new Experimental Hall D complex. There, the 12 GeV beam is converted into a first-of-its-kind 9 GeV photon beam. "The photons go through our liquid hydrogen target. Some of them will interact with a proton in that target, something is exchanged between the photon and the proton, and something is kicked out - a meson," Meyer explains. "This publication looked at some of the simplest mesons you could kick out. But it's the same, basic production mechanism that most of our reactions will follow." The result was published as a Rapid Communication in the April issue of Physical Review C. It demonstrated that the linear polarization of the photon beam provides important information by ruling out possible meson production mechanisms. "It's not so much that the particles we created were interesting, but how they were produced: Learning what reactions were important in making them," Meyer says. The next step for the collaboration is further analysis of data already collected and preparations for the next experimental run in the fall. "I'm sure that we've produced hybrid mesons already, we just don't have enough data to start looking for them yet," Meyer says. "There are a number of steps that we're going through in terms of understanding the detector and our analysis. We're doing the groundwork now, so that we'll have confidence that we understand things well enough that we can validate results we'll be getting in the future." "This new experimental facility - Hall D - was built by dedicated efforts of the Jefferson Lab staff and the GlueX collaboration," says Eugene Chudakov, Hall D group leader. "It is nice to see that all of the equipment, including complex particle detectors, is operating as planned, and the exciting scientific program has successfully begun." The 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade project is in its last phase of work and is scheduled for completion in September. Other major experimental thrusts for the upgraded CEBAF include research that will enable the first snapshots of the 3D structure of protons and neutrons, detailed explorations of the internal dynamics and quark-gluon structure of nuclei, and tests of fundamental theories of matter. Explore further: Jefferson Lab accomplishes critical milestones toward completion of 12 GeV upgrade More information: H. Al Ghoul et al, Measurement of the beam asymmetryforandphotoproduction on the proton atGeV, Physical Review C (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.042201
News Article | June 7, 2017
Starting June 9, those who give advice on investments within retirement accounts will be held to the Impartial Conduct Standards, which have three requirements: The full requirements will go into effect on Jan. 1, barring further regulatory or legislative changes. "Through our focused DOL implementation efforts over the past two years, Nationwide is more prepared than ever to position advisors for success," McGarry said. "Nationwide has been meeting in person with advisors across the country about the DOL rule. Everyone has been busy developing their game plan. And they want our help." Resources for advisors The Nationwide Retirement Institute's DOL website provides resources for firms and advisors wrestling with the complexities of the fiduciary rule, such as identifying any new requirements as a fiduciary, taking a close look at the Best Interest Contract Exemption, understanding how the regulations may affect their business and how to address common client questions. These new tools will be available starting June 9, and will also help advisors implement a prudent process that puts clients' interests at the center of advice-giving, simplifying complex topics like: Nationwide helps advisors serve a variety of client needs, whether working in a commission-based or fee-based model. With the acquisition of Jefferson National, operating as Nationwide's advisory solutions business, Nationwide offers resources leveraging tax-deferred investing to accumulate wealth. Financial professionals can access the educational video on Maximizing Tax Deferral, visit the Knowledge Bank, or call the Advisor Support Desk at (866) 667-0564. "As America's largest and most affluent generation moves into retirement, they need help from professionals who can expertly and confidently develop retirement planning strategies," McGarry said. "Through the Nationwide Retirement Institute, we help advisors provide effective guidance to clients tackling the toughest investment and retirement challenges – with tools, resources and hands-on support that fosters informed actions." About Nationwide Retirement Institute The Nationwide Retirement Institute provides practical thought leadership through timely insights and education, client-ready tools and consultative support. Our comprehensive approach helps financial advisors, plan sponsors and clients break down and simplify the most complex investment and retirement challenges. About Jefferson National Jefferson National, now Nationwide's advisory solutions business is a recognized innovator of a leading tax-advantaged investing solution for RIAs, fee-based advisors and the clients they serve. Trusted partner to a network of over 4,000 advisors, Jefferson National provides greater efficiency, transparency and choice through an adaptable technology platform, award-winning distribution strategy and cost-effective servicing capabilities. Named the industry "Gold Standard" as of 2012 and winner of more than 50 industry awards, including the DMA 2010 Financial Services Company of the Year. The company serves advisors and clients nationwide, through its subsidiaries Jefferson National Life Insurance Company and Jefferson National Life Insurance Company of New York. To reach our advisor support desk, please call 1-866-WHY-FLAT (1-866-949-3528). To learn more, please visit www.jeffnat.com. About Nationwide Nationwide, a Fortune 100 company based in Columbus, Ohio, is one of the largest and strongest diversified insurance and financial services organizations in the U.S. and is rated A+ by both A.M. Best and Standard & Poor's. The company provides a full range of insurance and financial services, including auto, commercial, homeowners, farm and life insurance; public and private sector retirement plans, annuities and mutual funds; banking and mortgages; excess & surplus, specialty and surety; pet, motorcycle and boat insurance. For more information, visit www.nationwide.com. Nationwide, Nationwide Retirement Institute, Nationwide is on your side and the Nationwide N and Eagle are service marks of Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company. Nationwide Investment Services Corporation (NISC), member FINRA. The Nationwide Retirement Institute is a division of NISC. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nationwide-helps-advisors-prepare-for-first-phase-of-department-of-labor-rule-300470552.html
Simmons-Duffin D.,Jefferson Lab
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014
We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the shadow formalism of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the embedding space Rd+1,1. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples. © The Authors.
Rudelius T.,Jefferson Lab
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015
We derive constraints facing models of axion inflation based on decay constant alignment from a string-theoretic and quantum gravitational perspective. In particular, we investigate the prospects for alignment and 'anti-alignment' of C4 axion decay constants in type IIB string theory, deriving a strict no-go result in the latter case. We discuss the relationship of axion decay constants to the weak gravity conjecture and demonstrate agreement between our string-theoretic constraints and those coming from the 'generalized' weak gravity conjecture. Finally, we consider a particular model of decay constant alignment in which the potential of C4 axions in type IIB compactifications on a Calabi-Yau three-fold is dominated by contributions from D7-branes, pointing out that this model evades some of the challenges derived earlier in our paper but is highly constrained by other geometric considerations.
Briceno R.A.,Jefferson Lab
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014
The quantization condition for two-particle systems with an arbitrary number of two-body open coupled channels, spin, momentum, and masses in a finite volume with either periodic or twisted boundary conditions is presented. Although emphasis is placed in cubic volumes, the result holds for asymmetric volumes. The result is relativistic, holds for all momenta below the three- and four-particle thresholds, and is exact up to exponential volume corrections that are governed by L/r, where L is the spatial extent of the volume and r is the range of the interactions between the particles. For hadronic systems the range of the interaction is set by the inverse of the pion mass, mπ, and as a result the formalism presented is suitable for mπL1. The condition presented is in agreement with all previous studies of two-body systems in a finite volume. Implications of the formalism for the studies of multichannel baryon-baryon systems are discussed. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped, making unwanted radioactivation. GENERAL STATEMENT OF HOW THIS PROBLEM OR SITUATION IS BEING ADDRESSED. A Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production target, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. MuPlus, in partnership with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposes to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production for medical diagnostics and therapy. WHAT WILL BE DONE IN PHASE I. MuPlus will use our own codes, MuSim for MCNP6 and G4beamline for GEANT4, and others to optimize beam parameters of an ERL-based radioisotope production facility. Components include the radiator with photon and electron beam parameters, absorbers for scattered electrons, target cooling, beam-radiator interactions, radiator optimization, thermal distributions and power handling, management of energy spread and angular acceptance for the recirculation arc, and optimization of isotope production versus energy recovery requirements. Particular isotopes to be first examples of this new technology will be chosen based on market analysis for an engineering design to be done in Phase II. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS ERLs are increasingly the technology of choice for highly demanding applications. In energy recovery, more than 90% of the beam power is recycled and not deposited in a beam dump. Our first application will be for nuclear medicine, which has humanitarian and commercial benefits. Of the 30 million people who are hospitalized each year in the United States, a third are treated with nuclear medicine. More than 10 million nuclear-medicine procedures are performed on patients and more than 100 million nuclear- medicine tests are performed each year in the United States alone. There are nearly one hundred radioisotopes whose beta and/or gamma radiation is used in diagnosis, therapy, or investigations in nuclear medicine. We are interested in the commonly used isotopes as well as developing techniques for isotopes for new applications, both medical and industrial. KEY WORDS: energy-recovery, superconducting RF, linac, commercial, radioisotope, production SUMMARY FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS: An energy recovery technique for superconducting linear accelerators developed at Jefferson Lab is being applied to the production of radioisotopes used for medical diagnostics and therapy. This Energy Recovery Linac will reduce operating costs for isotope production facilities by being more efficient and by producing fewer unwanted radiation byproducts.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient replacement source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to allow its use as a replacement for the klystron (model VKL7811) presently used at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, while providing significant energy savings. GENERAL STATEMENT OF HOW THIS PROBLEM OR SITUATION IS BEING ADDRESSED. We will develop a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection- locked amplitude-modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, operating above 80% efficiency with an MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source will be based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetrons magnetic field to achieve the AM which is required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. WHAT WILL BE DONE IN PHASE I. The novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron will be designed during Phase I. The low-level RF system, required to maintain injection locking during the AM of the magnetron with the magnetic field controlled, will also be designed. A prototype magnetic assembly for the varying magnetic field will be built and tested to assure operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS Future applications of the novel injection-locked AM magnetron include, commercial magnetron heating applications for more precise material processing in the chemical industry such as microwave driven particle synthesis. Phased array radar systems will also benefit from the injection locked AM magnetron, whether in ground penetrating radar or microwave power transmission. And, of course, it has accelerator applications worldwide. KEY WORDS: magnetron, injection-locking, amplitude-modulation SUMMARY FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS: A backward compatible highly efficient microwave source will be developed to replace the low efficiency, costly klystrons currently used at JLAB. The novel injection-locked AM magnetron has commercial applications in accelerator applications, microwave heating in the chemical industry and applications in phased array radar systems.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2016
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to replace the klystron presently used at JLab, while providing energy savings. GENERAL STATEMENT OF HOW THIS PROBLEM OR SITUATION IS BEING ADDRESSED. We will develop a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection-locked amplitude-modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, >80% efficiency, and MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source will be based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetron magnetic field to achieve the AM required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. WHAT WAS DONE IN PHASE I. A novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron with a trim magnetic coil was designed and its operation numerically simulated during Phase I. The low-level RF system to control the trim field and magnetron anode voltage was designed and modeled for operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. A plan for constructing a prototype magnetron and control system was developed. WHAT IS PLANNED FOR THE PHASE II PROJECT Prototype 1497 magnetrons with a trim magnetic coil will be built. A system to control the magnetron will be built and tested to vary the trim coil current and the anode voltage as required to suppress beam emittance growth due to microphonics and changing beam loads. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS The immediate outcome of this project is a high efficiency, low cost replacement for the CEBAF accelerator klystrons at JLab with an energy savings payback time of 5 years. Future applications of the novel injection-locked AM magnetron include, commercial magnetron heating applications for more precise material processing in the chemical industry such as microwave driven particle synthesis. Phased array radar systems will also benefit from the injection locked AM magnetron in ground penetrating radar and microwave power transmission.