Raoult D.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
BMC research notes | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: During the Hajj season, respiratory symptoms are very common among pilgrims. Here, we investigated the viable bacterial population in air samples collected around the slaughterhouses used during the Hajj.METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected air samples on three days from four different sites: slaughterhouses at Al-Kakia, Al-Meaisim and Al-Sharaia, and from a waste disposal area designated for the remnants of slaughter. Samples were cultured on blood agar plates for 48 h, and bacterial isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF MS. A dendrogram using the spectra of the unidentified bacterial species was constructed, and PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed for one isolate per cluster. In total, 2500 colonies appeared on the nutrient agar plates, and 244 were purified for further analysis. Good identification was obtained for 202 (83%) isolates by MALDI-TOF MS. The most common genera were Bacillus (n=94, 45%) and Staphyloccocus (n=55, 26%). Poor identification was obtained for 42 (17%) isolates, and their spectra clustering revealed that these isolates belonged to 10 species. Four of these were considered to be new species.CONCLUSIONS: During the Hajj, the air was contaminated by many environmental bacterial agents, and MALDI-TOF MS was successfully adapted for their rapid identification.
Lavoue E.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011
Communities of practice (CoPs) emerge within companies by the way of informal discussions with practitioners who share ideas and help each other to solve problems. Each CoP develops its own practices, reinventing what is certainly being replicated somewhere else, in other companies. Our work aims at connecting CoPs centred on the same general activity and capitalising on all the produced knowledge. For that purpose, we propose a model of the interconnection of communities of practice (ICP), based on the concept of constellation of communities of practice (CCP) developed by Wenger. The model of ICP was implemented and has been used to develop the TE-Cap 2 platform. This platform relies on a specific knowledge management tool and a social networking service. We applied the model and platform to the case of university tutors. The TE-Cap 2 platform has been used in real conditions with tutors from different institutions and countries and we present the main results of this descriptive investigation. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Pelloux Y.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Murray J.E.,University of Cambridge |
Everitt B.J.,University of Cambridge
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Compulsive drug use and a persistent vulnerability to relapse are key features of addiction. Imaging studies have suggested that these features may result from deficits in prefrontal cortical structure and function, and thereby impaired top-down inhibitory control over limbic-striatal mechanisms of drug-seeking behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that selective damage to distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex, or to the amygdala, after a short history of cocaine taking would: (i) result in compulsive cocaine seeking at a time when it would not usually be displayed; or (ii) facilitate relapse to drug seeking after abstinence. Rats with selective, bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala or anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, orbitofrontal or anterior insular cortices were trained to self-administer cocaine under a seeking-taking chained schedule. Intermittent mild footshock punishment of the cocaine-seeking response was then introduced. No prefrontal cortical lesion affected the ability of rats to withhold their seeking responses. However, rats with lesions to the basolateral amygdala increased their cocaine-seeking responses under punishment and were impaired in their acquisition of conditioned fear. Following a 7-day abstinence period, rats were re-exposed to the drug-seeking environment for assessment of relapse in the absence of punishment or cocaine. Rats with prelimbic cortex lesions showed decreased seeking responses during relapse, whereas those with anterior insular cortex lesions showed an increase. Combined, these results show that acute impairment of prefrontal cortical function does not result in compulsive cocaine seeking after a short history of self-administering cocaine, but further implicates subregions of the prefrontal cortex in relapse. © 2013 Crown. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
What does 'clinical sense' mean at the time of Evidence-Based Medicine and Patient-Based Medicine? [Qu'entendre par 'sens clinique' à l'heure de l'Evidence-Based Medicine et de la Patient-Based Medicine?]
Giroux E.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Ethique et Sante | Year: 2014
This paper examines the way the notion of 'clinical sense' is often used in order to criticize a medicine considered overly scientific, namely, Evidence-Based Medicine. I argue in favor of going beyond this opposition, firstly through paying attention to the multiple meanings of the notion of 'sense', and secondly, through exploring and questioning the conception of science implied in this dualism. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Ibekwe-Sanjuan F.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012
The French conception of information science is often contrasted with the Anglophone one, which is perceived as different and rooted mainly in Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. While there is such a thing as a French conception of information science, this conception is not totally divorced from the Anglophone one. Unbeknownst to researchers from the two geographical and cultural regions, they share similar conceptions of the field and invoke similar theoretical foundations, in particular the socio-constructivist theory. There is also a convergence of viewpoints on the dual nature of information science, i.e., the fact that it is torn between two competing paradigms-objectivist and subjectivist. Technology is another area where a convergence of viewpoints is noticeable: Scholars from both geographic and cultural zones display the same suspicion toward the role of technology and of computer science. It would therefore be misleading to uphold the view that Anglophone information science is essentially objectivist and technicist while the French conception is essentially social and rooted in the humanities. This paper highlights converging analyses from authors based in both linguistic and geographical regions with the aim to foster a better understanding of the challenges that information science is facing worldwide and to help trace a path to how the global information science community can try to meet them. © 2012 ASIS&T.
Bittar F.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Rolain J.-M.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010
Respiratory infections remain a major threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The detection and correct identification of the bacteria implicated in these infections is critical for the therapeutic management of patients. The traditional methods of culture and phenotypic identification of bacteria lack both sensitivity and specificity because many bacteria can be missed and/or misidentified. Molecular analyses have recently emerged as useful means to resolve these problems, including molecular methods for accurate identification or detection of bacteria and molecular methods for evaluation of microbial diversity. These recent molecular technologies have increased the list of new and/or emerging pathogens and epidemic strains associated with CF patients. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of intact cells has also emerged recently as a powerful and rapid method for the routine identification of bacteria in clinical microbiology laboratories and will certainly represent the method of choice also for the routine identification of bacteria in the context of CF. Finally, recent data derived from molecular culture-independent analyses indicate the presence of a previously underestimated, complex microbial community in sputa from CF patients. Interestingly, full genome sequencing of some bacteria frequently recovered from CF patients has highlighted the fact that the lungs of CF patients are hotspots for lateral gene transfer and the adaptation of these ecosystems to a specific chronic condition. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Angelakis E.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Armougom F.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Million M.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Raoult D.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Future Microbiology | Year: 2012
The human gut microbiota is a metabolic organ that is determined by a dynamic process of selection and competition. Age, dietary habits and geographical origin of people have an important impact on the intestinal microbiota. The role of the microbiota is still largely unknown, but the bacteria of the gut flora do contribute enzymes that are absent in humans and play an essential role in the catabolism of dietary fibers. Germ-free mice provide a complementary approach for characterizing the properties of the human gut microbiota. Recently, microbial changes in the human gut were proposed to be one of the possible causes of obesity. This review summarizes the latest research on the association between microbial ecology and host weight.
Valax M.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Asian Business and Management | Year: 2012
We have analysed the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) perspective within the fast-food industry in China, with particular attention to McDonald's Corporation as a global icon. On the basis of a case study analysis, our research has revealed significant differences in the values, attitudes and beliefs that managers and workers personally hold and what they encounter in the workplace. In China, McDonald's has also faced the challenge of improving the perception of the career opportunities it offers and made efforts to undo the negative reputation of low-paying jobs. We explore theoretical implications and propose some suggestions for improving CSR in fast-food management in China. Our results show that improvements in business performance in this industry should be allied to real CSR, not simply to a McDonaldisation of the Chinese workforce. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Biswas S.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 |
Rolain J.-M.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Future Microbiology | Year: 2010
Bartonella species, which belong to the α-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria, are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are highly adapted to their mammalian host reservoirs. Bartonella species are responsible for different clinical conditions affecting humans, including Carrions disease, cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis and peliosis hepatis. While some of these diseases can resolve spontaneously without treatment, in other cases, the disease is fatal without antibiotic treatment. In this article, we discuss the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Bartonella species, detected using several methods. We also provide an overview of Bartonella infection in humans and animals and discuss the antibiotic treatment recommendations for the different infections, treatment failure and the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance in these bacteria. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IOF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IOF | Award Amount: 370.30K | Year: 2015
Though more than 100 years has elapsed since China became a Republic, historical documentation of that period is still in formation. The Republican period lays claim to some of the most turbulent events in China, including the Sino-Japanese War and the transition to communist rule, and most notoriously the Rape of Nanjing, aptly compared to genocides such as the Holocaust and the Dirty War. Reconstructing Memory From Lost Revolutionaries of the Chinese Republic will assemble and analyze primary documents and interviews from Chinese locals and diaspora Chinese about events of the Republican period and their profound influence on the formation of global Chinese identity. I will (1) Curate artifacts, execute filmed interviews and photographs that provide memoir material for the Republican period. (2) Complete a monograph analyzing the how the 1911 revolution and subsequent Republican period has been memorialized and made to reflect certain histories of Chinese individuals and Chinese diaspora. (3) Design and launch a virtual living archive, which will include video interviews of key personalities and will help to nucleate a community by offering the possibility for active participation and contribution. This study is groundbreaking in its collection of first-hand memoirs from individuals who lived during this period and their descendantsChinese locals and Chinese diaspora subjects, including the less well-represented voices of women and children. This project will offer a panoramic and in-depth view of how memory surfaces in public and private ways after decades of state suppression and manipulation of historic memory. This project illuminates through its stories the long-standing social traditions in China; the significance of clannishness and family to identity and powerbut also the nostalgia for familial territory and history that govern political and diplomatic decisions even today, a century later.