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Lyon, France

Jean Moulin University Lyon III is a French public university, based in Lyon. It is under the supervision of the Academy of Lyon. A total of 22,500 students study there for a three-to-eight-year degree. Wikipedia.

This paper examines the way the notion of 'clinical sense' is often used in order to criticize a medicine considered overly scientific, namely, Evidence-Based Medicine. I argue in favor of going beyond this opposition, firstly through paying attention to the multiple meanings of the notion of 'sense', and secondly, through exploring and questioning the conception of science implied in this dualism. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Raoult D.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
BMC research notes | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: During the Hajj season, respiratory symptoms are very common among pilgrims. Here, we investigated the viable bacterial population in air samples collected around the slaughterhouses used during the Hajj.METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected air samples on three days from four different sites: slaughterhouses at Al-Kakia, Al-Meaisim and Al-Sharaia, and from a waste disposal area designated for the remnants of slaughter. Samples were cultured on blood agar plates for 48 h, and bacterial isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF MS. A dendrogram using the spectra of the unidentified bacterial species was constructed, and PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed for one isolate per cluster. In total, 2500 colonies appeared on the nutrient agar plates, and 244 were purified for further analysis. Good identification was obtained for 202 (83%) isolates by MALDI-TOF MS. The most common genera were Bacillus (n=94, 45%) and Staphyloccocus (n=55, 26%). Poor identification was obtained for 42 (17%) isolates, and their spectra clustering revealed that these isolates belonged to 10 species. Four of these were considered to be new species.CONCLUSIONS: During the Hajj, the air was contaminated by many environmental bacterial agents, and MALDI-TOF MS was successfully adapted for their rapid identification. Source

Pelloux Y.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 | Murray J.E.,University of Cambridge | Everitt B.J.,University of Cambridge
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Compulsive drug use and a persistent vulnerability to relapse are key features of addiction. Imaging studies have suggested that these features may result from deficits in prefrontal cortical structure and function, and thereby impaired top-down inhibitory control over limbic-striatal mechanisms of drug-seeking behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that selective damage to distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex, or to the amygdala, after a short history of cocaine taking would: (i) result in compulsive cocaine seeking at a time when it would not usually be displayed; or (ii) facilitate relapse to drug seeking after abstinence. Rats with selective, bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala or anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, orbitofrontal or anterior insular cortices were trained to self-administer cocaine under a seeking-taking chained schedule. Intermittent mild footshock punishment of the cocaine-seeking response was then introduced. No prefrontal cortical lesion affected the ability of rats to withhold their seeking responses. However, rats with lesions to the basolateral amygdala increased their cocaine-seeking responses under punishment and were impaired in their acquisition of conditioned fear. Following a 7-day abstinence period, rats were re-exposed to the drug-seeking environment for assessment of relapse in the absence of punishment or cocaine. Rats with prelimbic cortex lesions showed decreased seeking responses during relapse, whereas those with anterior insular cortex lesions showed an increase. Combined, these results show that acute impairment of prefrontal cortical function does not result in compulsive cocaine seeking after a short history of self-administering cocaine, but further implicates subregions of the prefrontal cortex in relapse. © 2013 Crown. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Ibekwe-Sanjuan F.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The French conception of information science is often contrasted with the Anglophone one, which is perceived as different and rooted mainly in Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. While there is such a thing as a French conception of information science, this conception is not totally divorced from the Anglophone one. Unbeknownst to researchers from the two geographical and cultural regions, they share similar conceptions of the field and invoke similar theoretical foundations, in particular the socio-constructivist theory. There is also a convergence of viewpoints on the dual nature of information science, i.e., the fact that it is torn between two competing paradigms-objectivist and subjectivist. Technology is another area where a convergence of viewpoints is noticeable: Scholars from both geographic and cultural zones display the same suspicion toward the role of technology and of computer science. It would therefore be misleading to uphold the view that Anglophone information science is essentially objectivist and technicist while the French conception is essentially social and rooted in the humanities. This paper highlights converging analyses from authors based in both linguistic and geographical regions with the aim to foster a better understanding of the challenges that information science is facing worldwide and to help trace a path to how the global information science community can try to meet them. © 2012 ASIS&T. Source

Dicks H.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2014

Ivan Illich and Jamie Linton have both argued that our current technological relation to water constitutes an abstraction. Developing this insight in the context of phenomenology, I draw on Michel Haar's French translation of Gestell-the essence of technology, according to Heidegger-as 'consommation' (consumption), to put forward a criticism of the abstract status of water in postindustrial, consumer societies. I propose in its place a concrete, phenomenological approach, according to which a policy of 'letting water appear' can not only play a significant role in the unconcealment of poiésis- Heidegger's response to the question concerning technology-but also form the basis of a renewed urban water policy. Four key examples of letting water appear are examined: daylighting urban rivers and streams; harvesting local rain and ground water; treating wastewater on-site using 'living machines'; and attuning demand to local water flows. I conclude by suggesting that urban water policy cannot be reduced to integrated water resource management, for the transition to sustainability also requires a fuller understanding of the phenomenological issue of 'letting appear' (poie-sis). © 2014 Pion and its Licensors. Source

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