Jamonneau V.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide |
Jamonneau V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Camara O.,Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomose Humaine Africaine |
Ilboudo H.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015
Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT) of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa. SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p≤0.0003) to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7–99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%. The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance. © 2015 Jamonneau et al. Source
Ban S.D.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology |
Ban S.D.,Felix Houphouet-Boigny University |
Boesch C.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology |
N'Guessan A.,Jean Lorougnon Guede University |
And 3 more authors.
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2016
The production of edible rainforest fruits is characterized by fluctuating and seasonal patterns that require frugivores to flexibly adjust their ranging behaviour. We investigated whether significant changes in a forager's travel direction can inform us about the importance of the nutritional and energetic aspects of different food sources for a wild animal's diet. We recorded the ranging patterns of five adult female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, for a total of 275 full days in the Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and designed two models that predicted their directional changes at, and on the way to, fruit-bearing feeding trees. In both models, directional change was significantly influenced by the density of the feeding tree species and the crude fat content of that species' fruit. Female chimpanzees were more likely to change their travel direction for rarer trees, at which they fed on fruits that contained higher amounts of fat. In addition, directional changes tended to be positively influenced by the content of nonstructural (‘easy energy’) and structural carbohydrates (NDF) in that species' fruit. We did not detect any effect of sensory cues or social factors on the directional changes, in either model. The amount of fruit available and the time since the start of the fruiting season positively influenced directional change in the second model, which suggests that chimpanzees were updating their knowledge of the fruit availability in individual trees over time. Our results indicate that the nutrient content of fruit and its abundance exerted a significant impact on the shape of chimpanzee female travel paths, which opens up a new avenue for investigation of food preferences in wild animals through analyses of their ranging patterns. © 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Source
Sylla T.,Jean Lorougnon Guede University |
Pouysegu L.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences |
Da Costa G.,University of Bordeaux 1 |
Deffieux D.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015
The screening of natural products in the search for new lead compounds against Alzheimer's disease has unveiled several plant polyphenols that are capable of inhibiting the formation of toxic β-amyloid fibrils. Gallic acid based gallotannins are among these polyphenols, but their antifibrillogenic activity has thus far been examined using "tannic acid", a commercial mixture of gallotannins and other galloylated glucopyranoses. The first total syntheses of two true gallotannins, a hexagalloylglucopyranose and a decagalloylated compound whose structure is commonly used to depict "tannic acid", are now described. These depsidic gallotannins and simpler galloylated glucose derivatives all inhibit amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation in vitro, and monogalloylated α-glucogallin and a natural β-hexagalloylglucose are shown to be the strongest inhibitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source
Bindt C.,University of Hamburg |
Bonle M.T.,Institute National Of Sante Publique |
Appiah-Poku J.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology |
Hinz R.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine |
And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013
In low-income countries, perinatal depression is common, but longitudinal data on its influence on child health are rare. We examined the association between maternal depression and febrile illness in children. There were 654 mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire that were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in 2010-2011 and underwent 2-years of follow up. Mothers were examined for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module antepartum and 3 and 12 months postpartum. The hazard of febrile illness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers was estimated using a recurrent event Cox proportional hazards model. The prevalences of antepartum depression in mothers from Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana were 28.3% and 26.3%, respectively. The prevalences of depression at 3 and 12 months postpartum were 11.8% and 16.1% (Côte d'Ivoire) and 8.9% and 7.2% (Ghana). The crude and adjusted (for country and socioeconomic status) hazard ratios of febrile illness in children of depressed mothers compared with those in children of nondepressed mothers were 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 2.07) and 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.74) respectively. Perinatal depression was frequent and associated with febrile illness in the offspring. Our results showed that a high prevalence of depression in sub-Saharan Africa may pose a serious public health threat to women and their offspring. © The Author 2013. Source
Bene J.-C.K.,Jean Lorougnon Guede University |
Gamys J.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013
Mount Nimba is one of the most famous sites for biodiversity conservation in West Africa and has been identified as a priority Hotspot for conservation. In Liberia, the iron ore that constitutes the mountain body is exploited by ArcelorMittal Company. In the framework of its impact assessment process, bushmeat study in its mining concession was conducted by Sylvatrop. Surveys of different persons involved in bushmeat industry and hunting activity monitoring in northern Nimba County have been realized during eleven months. The results presented in this paper provide a first understanding of the Marketing channel of hunting products in this region. The hunting activities are mainly dedicated to feeding the hunter's family but commercial bushmeat activities are also important in the area both at the hunter community level and at the regional level. All kinds of animals are considered to be potential prey except sometimes those which are hard to find or too dangerous to hunt (buffalos, panthers...). Most of the caught game appears to be Rodents and forest Antelopes. The actors involving in the bushmeat industry in Northern Nimba County are hunter/farmer, rural and urban households, intermediaries, sellers of bushmeat in markets and in restaurants. Hunters sell their in their community towns, in the cities' market and restaurants but transboundery bushmeat trade also exist between the three countries that share the Nimba range (Guinea, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire). Source