Gryndler M.,Je Purkinje University |
Cerna L.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Bukovska P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Hrselova H.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Jansa J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014
Mycorrhizal fungi provide direct and functional interconnection of soil environment with their host plant roots. Colonization of non-host plants have occasionally been described, but its intensity and functional significance in complex plant communities remain generally unknown. Here, the abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber aestivum was measured in the roots of host and non-host (non-ectomycorrhizal) plants in a naturally occurring T. aestivum colony using a quantitative PCR approach. The roots of non-host plant species found inside the brûlé area were extensively colonized by T. aestivum mycelium, although the levels were significantly lower than those found in host Carpinus betulus roots. However, fungal biomass concentration in the non-host roots was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that in the surrounding soil. This indicates existence of an important biotic interaction between T. aestivum mycelium and the non-host, mostly herbaceous plants. Roots, either host or non-host, thus probably constitute hot spots of T. aestivum activity in the soil ecosystem with as yet uncovered functional significance. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Wu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University |
Dohnal V.,University of Hradec Kralove |
Dohnal V.,Je Purkinje University |
Huang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University |
And 2 more authors.
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2010
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by the fungi of Fusarium genus. Consumers are particularly concerned over the toxicity and food safety of trichothecenes and their metabolites from food-producing animals. The metabolism of T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 3-acetyldeoxy-nivalenol (3-aDON), and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-aDON) in rodents, swine, ruminants, poultry, and humans are reviewed in this article. Metabolic pathways of these mycotoxins are very different. The major metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin in animals are hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and conjugation. After being transformed to HT-2 toxin, it undergoes further hydroxylation at C-3' to yield 3'-hydroxy-HT-2 toxin, which is considered as an activation pathway, whereas transformation from T-2 to T-2 tetraol is an inactivation pathway in animals. The typical metabolites of T-2 toxin in animals are HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol (NEO), 3'-hydroxy-HT-2, and 3'-hydroxy-T-2, whereas HT-2 toxin is the main metabolite in humans. De-epoxidation is an important pathway for detoxification in animals. De-epoxy products, DOM-1, and de-epoxy-NIV are the main metabolites of DON and NIV in most animals, respectively. However, the two metabolites are not found in humans. Deacetyl can occur rapidly on the acetyl derivatives, 3-aDON, 15-aDON, and FX. DAS is metabolized in animals to 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (15-MAS) via C-4 deacetylation and then transformed to scirpentriol (SCP) via C-15 deacetylation. Finally, the epoxy is lost, yielding de-epoxy-SCP. De-epoxy-15-MAS is also the main metabolite of DAS. 15-MAS is the main metabolite in human skin. The review on the metabolism of trichothecenes will help one to well understand the fate of these toxins' future in animals and humans, as well as provide basic information for the risk assessment of them for food safety. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.
Boublik T.,Je Purkinje University
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2012
Two-dimensional systems, especially systems of hard disks, have been studied intensively during the last years both by simulation methods and theoretically; modified density functional theory has been applied most often. Recently, we have proposed an improved expression for the residual Helmholtz energy, ΔA, of the mixtures of 2D convex figures, which makes it possible to develop another, more simple " geometric" method. By differentiating ΔA with respect to the number of particles of type j, the chemical potential Δμ j might be obtained and consequently the logarithm of the radial distribution function expressed in terms of Δμ k of the considered pair of particles and the corresponding combined figure. The resulting equation is very simple, only two geometric quantities - figure areas and mean curvature integrals (mean radii) are to be evaluated. The used method is extremely simple and yields accurate prediction of the radial distribution functions of both the one- and multi-component systems in the most important interval of distances. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Boublik T.,Je Purkinje University
Molecular Physics | Year: 2011
Knowledge of the structure of simple fluids in nano-tubes constitutes important information in many scientific and technical branches. Computer simulations and density functional theory (DFT) offer accurate but laborious results. We have proposed a simple analytical method to determine the background correlation function on the basis of the residual chemical potentials of a pair of interacting bodies and of the corresponding combined body. These potentials are obtained in terms of geometric quantities. In this paper we dealt with the combination rule for the geometric quantity Q; the harmonic mean rule was proposed and verified at low densities by calculating the third cross-virial coefficient, and by comparing calculated density profiles of the inhomogeneous systems of hard sphere-wall at higher densities. A slight improvement over the previous results were found. Next, we applied our analytic method to realistic systems of a simple molecule in the graphite cylindrical pore. Hydrogen (and carbon monoxide), interacting with carbon of the graphite via the modified LJ potential are considered and the density profile was determined taking into account only the soft-sphere interaction within Weeks-Chandler-Andersen approximation. The considered approach was found to yield a fair description of the realistic simple fluid-cylindrical pore system. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Vachata P.,Je Purkinje University |
Petrovicky P.,Charles University |
Sames M.,Je Purkinje University
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2010
Although many reports mention a "high jugular bulb" (HJB), it is often not clearly defined. We examined the relationship between the jugular bulb (JB) and the internal auditory canal (IAC) in 200 temporal bones on high resolution CT scans and alcohol-fixed skull bases of adults. The average distance (±standard deviation) between the IAC and the JB was 7.5 ± 2.3 mm (range, 1-16 mm). The JB was higher on the right side than its companion in 53.3% of patients (left side only in 22%; no side dominance in 23.7% of bases). When the JB reached or exceeded the floor of the IAC (16.5%), it was defined as a HJB; 61% of HJB were found in females. Bilateral HJB was found in 0.5% of patients. The HJB was not associated with a contralateral flat JB. Preoperative multiplanar high resolution CT reconstructions make the most detailed assessment of structural topography. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.