JBS United

Sheridan, IN, United States

JBS United

Sheridan, IN, United States
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McCormick K.,Purdue University | McCormick K.,JBS United | Walk C.L.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients | Wyatt C.L.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients | Adeola O.,Purdue University
Animal Nutrition | Year: 2017

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus (P) utilization responses of pigs and broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with antimicrobials and phytase and to determine if P digestibility response to phytase is affected by supplementation with antimicrobials. Experiment 1 used 4 diets (a basal negative control formulated to contain 0.41% total P and 0.71% calcium [Ca] without added antimicrobials, basal negative control with added carbadox, basal negative control with added tylosin, or basal negative control with added virginiamycin) and six 18-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per diet. There was no effect of antimicrobials on P and Ca digestibility or retention. Carbadox supplementation increased (P < 0.05) digestibility and retention of gross energy (GE) and supplementation with tylosin increased (P < 0.05) N retention relative to the basal negative control diet. Experiment 2 used eight 19-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per treatment and 9 dietary treatments arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial of antimicrobials (none, tylosin, or virginiamycin) and phytase (0, 500, or 1,500 FTU/kg). Phytase addition to the diets linearly increased (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, nitrogen (N) and GE. Supplementation with antimicrobials did not affect apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, N or GE. There were linear effects (P < 0.01) of phytase on Ca utilization in diets that were not supplemented with antimicrobials but only tendencies (P < 0.10) in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin. Phytase linearly improved (P < 0.05) N utilization in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin but not in diets without added antimicrobials. Experiment 3 was a broiler chicken experiment with the same experimental design as Exp. 2 but feeding 8 birds per cage and 10 replicate cages per diet. Antimicrobial supplementation improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency and adding tylosin improved (P < 0.05) tibia ash but did not affect nutrient utilization. Dietary phytase improved (P < 0.01) growth performance, tibia ash and apparent ileal digestibility and retention of P regardless of antimicrobial supplementation. Overall, phytase supplementation improved growth performance and nutrient digestibility and retention, regardless of supplementation of diets with antimicrobials. Supplementation of diets with antimicrobials did not affect P digestibility or retention because of a lack of interaction between antimicrobials and phytase, there was no evidence that P digestibility response to phytase is affected by supplementation with antimicrobials. © 2017 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine


Stewart L.L.,Urbana University | Kil D.Y.,Urbana University | Kil D.Y.,Chung - Ang University | Ji F.,Urbana University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine the effect of dietary soybean hulls (SBH) and wheat middlings (WM) on body composi-tion, nutrient and energy retention, and the NE of diets and ingredients fed to growing or finishing pigs and 2) to determine if finishing pigs use the energy in SBH and WM more efficiently than growing pigs. Forty growing barrows (initial BW: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg) and 40 finishing barrows (initial BW: 84.8 ± 0.9 kg) were ran-domly allotted to 5 groups within each stage of growth. Two groups at each stage of growth served as the initial slaughter group. The remaining pigs were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments and harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal and was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 70% of the basal diet and 30% SBH or 30% WM. In the growing phase, ADG, G:F, and retention of lipids were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the diets contain-ing SBH or WM. Retention of energy was also greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the SBH. In the finishing phase, pigs fed the SBH diet tended (P = 0.10) to have a greater ADG than pigs fed the WM diet, and energy retention was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the WM diet. The NE of the basal diet fed to growing pigs was greater (P < 0.01) than the NE of the diets contain-ing SBH or WM, and there was a tendency for a greater (P = 0.05) NE of the basal diet than of the other diets when fed to finishing pigs. The NE of SBH did not dif-fer from the NE of WM in either growing or finishing pigs, and there was no interaction between ingredients and stage of growth on the NE of diets or ingredients. The NE of diets for growing pigs (1, 668 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of diets for finishing pigs (1, 823 kcal/kg), and the NE of the diets containing SBH (1, 688 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of the diets containing WM (1, 803 kcal/kg). Likewise, the NE of SBH (603 kcal/kg) did not differ from the NE of WM (987 kcal/kg). In conclusion, inclusion of 30% SBH or WM decreases the performance and nutri-ent retention in growing pigs but has little impact on finishing pigs. The NE of the diets decreases with the inclusion of SBH and WM, but the NE of diets and ingredients is not affected by the BW of pigs. The NE of SBH is not different from the NE of WM. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Kil D.Y.,Urbana University | Kil D.Y.,Chung - Ang University | Ji F.,Urbana University | Ji F.,Zinpro Corporation | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine if dietary soybean oil (SBO) affects the NE of corn when fed to growing or finishing pigs, 2) to determine if possible effects of dietary SBO on the NE of corn differ between growing and finishing pigs, and 3) to determine effects of SBO on pig growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids. Forty-eight growing (initial BW: 27.3 ± 2.5 kg) and 48 finishing (initial BW: 86.0 ± 3.0 kg) barrows were used, and within each stage of growth, pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 groups. Two groups at each stage of growth served as an initial slaughter group. The remaining 4 groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments and pigs in these groups were harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. A low-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and no added SBO and a high-lipid basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 8% SBO were formulated at each stage of growth. Two additional diets at each stage of growth were formulated by mixing 25% corn and 75% of the low-lipid basal diet or 25% corn and 75% of the high-lipid basal diet. Results indicated that addition of SBO had no effects on growth performance, carcass composition, or retention of energy, protein, and lipids but increased (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract and GE. Addition of SBO also increased (P < 0.05) DE and NE of diets, but had no effect on the DE and NE of corn. Finishing pigs had greater (P < 0.05) growth performance and retention of energy, protein, and lipids than growing pigs. A greater (P < 0.05) DE and NE of diets was observed for finishing pigs than for growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn was also greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs than for growing pigs. In conclusion, addition of SBO increases the DE and NE of diets but has no impact on the DE and NE of corn. Diets fed to finishing pigs have greater DE and NE values than diets fed to growing pigs and the DE and NE of corn are greater for finishing pigs than for growing pigs. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Wiegand B.R.,University of Missouri | Hinson R.B.,University of Missouri | Hinson R.B.,JBS United | Ritter M.J.,Elanco Animal Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high: 3,537, medium: 3,369, and low: 3,317 kcal/kg of ME) to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine and various dietary energy levels on the fatty acid profile of 4 carcass fat depots (jowl, belly, subcutaneous loin, and intramuscular) and the predictive relationships of calculated iodine value (IV) between these 4 fat depots. Carcasses were sampled for fat tissues at the anterior tip of the jowl, posterior to the sternum on the belly edge, three-quarters the distance around the LM (subcutaneous fat; SC), and within the LM (intramuscular fat; IMF). Feeding ractopamine diets reduced (P < 0.05) total SFA in SC and IMF and increased (P = 0.04) total MUFA in SC. Also, feeding ractopamine diets increased (P < 0.01) the IV of IMF. Total MUFA of belly fat was reduced (P < 0.05) when the low-energy diet was fed compared with the high-energy diet. Jowl fat total MUFA was reduced (P < 0.05) and total PUFA was increased (P < 0.05) when the medium-energy diet was fed compared with the high- and low-energy diets. Iodine values, independent of treatment, were 60.97, 64.51, 55.59, and 58.26 for belly, jowl, IMF, and SC fat depots, respectively. The IV correlations within fat depots were not consistent across dietary treatments because of the effect of treatments on carcass fatty acid characteristics. Feeding ractopamine diets shifted the fatty acid profile from SFA to MUFA in the SC depot. Feeding ractopamine diets did not change belly fat profiles, thus avoiding the potential negative effect of softening belly fat, which is detrimental to processing value. The IV of one fat depot may not be a good indication of IV of other fat depots because of weak correlation coefficients and the apparent influence of dietary treatment. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Hinson R.B.,University of Missouri | Hinson R.B.,JBS United | Wiegand B.R.,University of Missouri | Ritter M.J.,Elanco Animal Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high, 3,537; medium, 3,369; and low, 3,317 kcal of ME/kg) to determine the effects of dietary ractopamine and various energy levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing pigs. High-energy diets were corn-soybeanmeal- based with 4% added fat; medium-energy diets were corn-soybean meal based with 0.5% added fat; and low-energy diets were corn-soybean meal based with 0.5% added fat and 15% wheat middlings. Diets within each ractopamine level were formulated to contain the same standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME (0 mg/kg, 1.82; and 7.4 mg/kg, 2.65 g/Mcal of ME). Individual pig BW and feed disappearance were recorded at the beginning and conclusion (d 21) of the study. On d 21, pigs were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics and meat quality. No ractopamine × energy level interactions (P > 0.10) were observed for any response criteria. Final BW (125.2 vs. 121.1 kg), ADG (1.2 vs. 1.0 kg/d), and G:F (0.31 vs. 0.40) were improved (P < 0.001) with feeding of ractopamine diets. Feeding of the low-energy diet reduced (P = 0.001) final BW and ADG compared with the high- and medium- energy diets. Gain:feed was reduced (P = 0.005) when the medium-energy diets were fed compared with the high-energy diets. Additionally, G:F was reduced (P = 0.002) when the low-energy diets were compared with the high- and medium-energy diets. Feeding ractopamine diets increased (P < 0.05) HCW (93.6 vs. 89.9 kg) and LM area (51.2 vs. 44.2 cm 2). The LM pH decline was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by feeding ractopamine diets. The feeding of low-energy diets reduced (P = 0.001) HCW when compared with the high- and medium-energy diets and reduced (P = 0.024) 10th-rib backfat when compared with the high- and mediumenergy diet. These data indicate that feeding ractopamine diets improved growth performance and carcass characteristics, while having little or no detrimental effect on meat quality. Reductions in energy content of the diet by adding 15% wheat middlings resulted in impaired ADG, G:F, and 10th-rib backfat. There were no ractopamine × energy level interactions in this trial, which indicates that the improvements resulting from feeding ractopamine were present regardless of the dietary energy levels. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science.


Davis J.M.,University of Minnesota | Davis J.M.,JBS United | Urriola P.E.,University of Minnesota | Shurson G.C.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn–soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn–soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.4) than pigs fed no tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P < 0.01) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth of pigs independent of DDGS. Feeding DDGS reduced (P < 0.01) belly firmness, as measured by belly flop angle, independent of tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P < 0.10). Feeding DDGS and tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P < 0.01) by feeding tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of PUFA in belly fat but there was no effect of tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and backfat were correlated (P < 0.01) with the IV product of the diet fed in phase 3 (r = 0.49 and r = 0.81, respectively). In conclusion, adding 5% tallow to 30% DDGS diets improved G:F and carcass yield while reducing the IV of belly fat. However, pork fat firmness as measured by belly flop angle was not improved. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Kil D.Y.,Urbana University | Ji F.,Urbana University | Ji F.,ABC Laboratories | Stewart L.L.,Urbana University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine the NE of soybean oil (SBO) and choice white grease (CWG) fed to growing and finishing pigs, 2) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on the NE by growing and finishing pigs, and 3) to determine if there is a difference in the NE of SBO and CWG between growing and finishing pigs. Forty-eight growing (initial BW: 22.13±1.78 kg) and 48 finishing (initial BW: 84.17±5.80 kg) barrows were used, and they were housed and fed individually. Within each stage of growth, pigs were allotted to 8 outcome groups of 6 barrows based on BW. Within each outcome group, pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 groups. Two groups at each stage of growth served as an initial slaughter group. Pigs in the remaining groups were assigned to 4 dietary treatments and slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. The basal diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no supplemental lipids. Three additional diets were formulated by mixing 95% of the basal diet and 5% SBO, 90% of the basal diet and 10% SBO, or 90% of the basal diet and 10% CWG. Average daily gain and G:F for finishing pigs and apparent total tract digestibility of energy for growing and finishing pigs increased (linear, P < 0.05) with lipid content, but was not affected by lipid source. The lipid gain:protein gain ratio and the energy retention also increased (linear, P ≤ 0.05) with lipid content in growing and finishing pigs. There were no interactive effects between lipid content and stage of growth or between lipid source and stage of growth on the NE of diets and the NE of dietary lipids. The NE of diets increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing SBO (2,056, 2,206, and 2,318 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 5, or 10% SBO). The NE of the diet containing 10% CWG (2,440 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.05) than the NE of the diet containing 10% SBO. The NE of diets was greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs than for growing pigs regardless of lipid content or source. The NE of SBO included at 5% (5,073 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of SBO included at 10% (4,679 kcal/kg), but the NE of CWG (5,900 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.05) than the NE of SBO. The stage of growth had no impact on the NE of SBO or CWG. In conclusion, the NE of lipids is not affected by the content of dietary lipids, but the NE of CWG is greater than the NE of SBO. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Texas at Austin, Iowa State University and JBS United
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal genetics | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine how prenatal and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter white blood cell (leukocyte) DNA methylation of offspring. Fifteen gilts (n=5 per treatment) were selected from one of three treatments: (i) control diet throughout gestation, lactation and nursery phase (CON); (ii) algal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enriched in EPA and DHA (Gromega


Petersen G.I.,Urbana University | Petersen G.I.,JBS United | Liu Y.,Urbana University | Stein H.H.,Urbana University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The objective of this experiment was to determine the coefficient of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of amino acids (AA) in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn gluten meal (CGM), high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG), and field peas fed to weanling pigs. Twelve weanling barrows (initial body weight: 10.3 ± 0.9. kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets were formulated using corn, SBM, CGM, HP DDG, or field peas as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet used to calculate basal endogenous losses was also formulated. The CSID of all indispensable AA were greater (P<0.05) in SBM, CGM, and field peas than in HP DDG, except that no differences in the CSID of leucine, methionine, and tryptophan were observed between field peas and HP DDG. The CSID of methionine and tryptophan were greater (P<0.05) in SBM than in field peas, and the CSID of all indispensable AA were greater (P<0.05) in CGM than in field peas except for the CSID of arginine, histidine, lysine, and threonine. However, no differences in the CSID of all indispensable AA were observed between SBM and CGM. The CSID of arginine, histidine, and lysine in corn were less (P<0.05) than in SBM, but for all other indispensable AA, no differences between corn and SBM were observed. It is concluded that the CSID of all AA in CGM is similar to that in SBM, but HP DDG has lower CSID values than in corn, CGM, and SBM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Almeida F.N.,Urbana University | Petersen G.I.,JBS United | Stein H.H.,Urbana University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P < 0.01) than in DDGS, bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of all other indispensable AA in corn gluten feed were not different from those in corn. However, for most indispensable AA, the SID in corn gluten feed was not different from the SID in DDGS. The SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg, His, Leu, and Met, were not different from the SID in corn. Likewise, the SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg and Leu, were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Ile, Met, Phe, and Val in hominy feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of the remaining indispensable AA in hominy feed were not different from the SID of indispensable AA in corn. All indispensable AA in hominy feed also had SID values that were not different from the SID values of AA in DDGS, except for Arg and Lys, which had greater (P < 0.01) SID than in DDGS. In conclusion, bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

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