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Petras H.,JBS Inc | Nieuwbeerta P.,Leiden University | Piquero A.R.,Florida State University
Criminology | Year: 2010

Recent advances and debates surrounding general and developmental as well as static and dynamic theories of crime can be traced to the 1986 National Academy of Science's Report on criminal careers and the discussion it generated. A key point of contention has been regarding the interpretation of the age-crime curve. According to Gottfredson and Hirschi (1986), the decline in the age-crime curve in early adulthood reflects decreasing individual offending frequency (λ) after the peak. Blumstein et al. (1986) claimed that the decline in the aggregate age-crime curve also could be attributable to the termination of criminal careers, and the average value of l could stay constant (or increase with age) for those offenders who remain active after that peak. Using data from the Criminal Career and Life Course Study-including information on criminal convictions across 60 years of almost 5,000 persons convicted in the Netherlands-and applying a two-part growth model that explicitly distinguishes between participation and frequency, the study outlined in this article assessed the participation-frequency debate. Results suggest that the decline in the age-crime curve in early adulthood reflects both decreasing individual offending participation and frequency after the peak, that the probabilities of participation and frequency are significantly related at the individual level, and that sex and marriage influence both participation and frequency. © 2010 American Society of Criminology.

Petras H.,JBS Inc
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2012

Background: Patterns of heroin and cocaine use vary and may be associated with unique risk factors for bloodborne infections. Methods: Latent class analysis identified sub-populations of 552 heroin and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland. Using latent class regression, these classes were analyzed for associations with demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, Hepatitis C, and HIV. Results: Three classes were found: Crack/Nasal-Heroin users (43.5%), Polysubstance users (34.8%), and Heroin Injectors (21.8%). Compared to Polysubstance users, Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were almost 7 times more likely to identify as Black (OR = 6.97, 95% CI = 4.35-11.2). Sharing needles was over 2.5 times more likely among Polysubstance users than among Heroin Injectors (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.49-4.75). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were 2.5 times more likely than Polysubstance users to exchange drugs for sex (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.22-5.13). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were less likely than Heroin Injectors to have Hepatitis C (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18), but no significant differences were found for HIV. Conclusions: Subpopulations of cocaine and heroin users differed in demographic classifications, HIV-risk behaviors, and Hepatitis C infection. All subpopulations included substantial numbers of HIV-positive individuals. Findings provide further evidence that non-injection drug users face significant infectious disease risk. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Eyler E.C.H.,JBS Inc
American Journal on Addictions | Year: 2013

Background and Objectives Many individuals receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid addiction also require treatment for acute or chronic pain, and the presence of pain is known to have a negative impact on patient health and function. However, effective pain management in this population is complicated by many factors, including heightened pain sensitivity, high opioid tolerance, illicit substance use, and variable cross-tolerance to opioid pain medications. This article reviews the recent literature on acute and chronic pain among, and pain treatment of, patients receiving MMT for opioid addiction and discusses the implications for effective pain management. Acute pain management among women maintained on methadone during and after labor and delivery is also discussed, as well as common concerns held by patients and providers about appropriate pain management strategies in the context of methadone maintenance and addiction treatment. Methods One hundred nine articles were identified in a PubMed/MEDLINE electronic database search using the following search terms: methadone, methadone maintenance, methadone addiction, pain, pain management, chronic pain, and acute pain. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and additional studies were extracted from the reference lists of articles identified in the original search. Results The pain sensitivity and pain responses of MMT patients differ significantly from those of patients not maintained on opioids, and few data are available to guide patient care. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Rigorous studies are needed to identify and evaluate effective pain management approaches for this unique patient population and to improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. © 2011 Society for Prevention Research.

Cameron K.A.,JBS Inc
Consultant Pharmacist | Year: 2012

Health promotion and disease prevention programs are critical elements in helping older Americans remain healthy and independent. Over the past decade, the efforts of the Administration on Aging and other agencies around the country have focused on ensuring that older adults have access to community-based health promotion and disease prevention ("healthy aging") programs that can make a noticeable difference in the health and well-being of older adults. Community-based organizations and agencies that provide these healthy aging programs provide ideal partners for senior care pharmacists. Many healthy aging programs target the prevention and management of chronic conditions in which medication management plays a key role. Pharmacists who desire to work with aging service providers and serve community-dwelling older adults should be aware of these programs that are growing in importance within the aging network. This series describes several healthy aging, evidence-based programs and discusses collaborative opportunities for senior care pharmacists. Part 2 will review the concepts behind and research basis for chronic disease self-management programs for older adults and provide practice advice for pharmacists who want to collaborate with organizations that have implemented healthy aging programs. © 2012 American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

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