Brown D.E.,Research Center |
Edmonds T.,Research Center |
Joyner R.W.,Research Center |
McCarroll J.J.,Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2014
In the 1970s BP started developing a new catalyst for ammonia synthesis which in final form comprises ruthenium, two promoters and a graphitised carbon support. This became the first new catalyst for ammonia synthesis to be commercialised since Fritz Haber's promoted iron catalyst. The catalyst is commercialised in the KBR Advanced Ammonia Process (KAAP). We describe the development of the catalyst, starting in the 1960s with studies to elucidate the mechanism of selective hydrogenation catalysts using nickel single crystals and LEED. These identified a phenomenon dubbed surface reorientation, in which an adsorbate such as sulphur causes the structure of the surface monolayer of a metal to change e.g. from fcc  to . These ideas led to discovery of an active platinum/alkali metal/carbon catalyst for the dehydrocyclisation of hexane. That catalyst was not commercial, but it led in turn to the identification of highly active ruthenium/alkali metal/carbon catalysts for ammonia synthesis. The best new catalyst is about 20 times more active than a commercial Haber catalyst. The special carbon support is mesoporous and graphitic. Scale up of catalyst production and testing are described briefly, as are some process considerations. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source
Brogioli D.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Ziano R.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Rica R.A.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Salerno D.,University of Milan Bicocca |
And 4 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012
The "capacitive mixing" (CAPMIX) technique is aimed at the extraction of energy from the salinity difference between the sea and rivers. It is based on the voltage rise that takes place at the electrodes when changing the salt concentration of the solution in which the two electrodes are dipped. In this paper, we focus on activated carbon electrodes, produced with various methods and treatments, and we measure their behaviour in CAPMIX experiments. We find that they behave as polarizable electrodes only on time scales of the order of minutes, while on longer time scales they tend to move to a specific "spontaneous" potential, likely due to chemical redox reactions. This analysis sheds light on the charge leakage, i.e. the loss of the stored charge due to undesired chemical reactions, which is one of the main hurdles of the CAPMIX technique when performed with activated carbon electrodes. We show that the leakage finds its origin in the tendency of the electrode to move to its spontaneous potential. Our investigation allows us to completely get rid of the leakage and demonstrates the striking result that CAPMIX cycles can be performed without an external power supply. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source
Shintani H.,Chuo University |
Sakudo A.,University of Ryukyus |
Biocontrol Science | Year: 2011
There are several well-developed rapid microbiological methods now becoming available that may have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended. Source
Jays | Date: 2013-07-26
A kit containing a shoe body having a heel base and a plurality of assorted removable and interchangeable heels. The heel assembly includes the heel base and a removable and interchangeable heel. The removability relies upon at east two curved, tapered grooves ending in a dimple. The heel utilizes a locking connector which contains components which fit within a cavity within the heel base and which locks in place upon rotation thereof when the components engage the curved, tapered, grooves and dimple.
Jays | Date: 2015-06-20
Paper goods and printed matter, namely, trading cards, posters, stickers, decals, temporary tattoo transfers, bumper stickers, score books, scorecards, printed baseball game programs, magazines and books featuring baseball, newsletters, brochures and pamphlets featuring baseball, dry erase writing boards and writing surfaces, writing pads, note paper, notebooks, binders, stationery-type portfolios, stationery folders, stationery sets, namely, writing paper, cards, and envelopes, commemorative envelopes, flip books, preprinted agenda organizers, clipboards, memo boards, scrapbooks, autograph books, baseball card albums, book covers, bookmarks, bookends, calendars, greeting cards, postcards, printed bank checkbooks, checkbook covers, collectible stamps, rubber stamps, ink stamps, commemorative stamps, paper pennants, gift wrapping paper, paper gift and party bags, paper party goods in the nature of paper party decorations, paper coasters, paper napkins, facial tissue, paper tablecloths, mounted and unmounted photographs, photograph albums, lithographs, plastic baseball card holders, Christmas card holders, money clips, paperweights, letter openers, pens, pencils, pencil top ornaments, crayons, markers, non-electric erasers, pencil sharpeners, pencil cases, ungraduated rulers, paper ticket holders and non-metal lanyards for paper ticket holders sold as a unit specially adapted for holding paper tickets, art pictures, and art prints; non-metal money clips; framed photographs.